Jun 23, 2013

Objectives of Human Resource Management

Objectives of human resource management can be divided into four major categories.
Social
HRM can contribute ethically and socially manner with respect to the needs and challenges of society. If an organization fails to use its resources for the benefit of society in an ethical manner, it can lead to a restriction of the Company. For example, the company may limit the choices of human resources through laws in hiring, it may limit laws that address discrimination, laws, or other safety concerns.

Organizational
The main objective of HRM is to organizational goals by allowing them to reach effective organizations. HRM is not the end but a means to help the organization achieve its goals

Functional
Functional purpose HRM transactions with contributions from the various departments in relation to their needs and effectiveness in achieving the organization's goal. The whole of resources or expertise Let wasted if HRM is unable to meet the demand of the organization.

 Individual
HRM also deals with the personal goals of the individual and personal and organizational goals can be achieved and to maximize production and achieve competitive advantages. These personal goals are important in order to obtain, retain and motivate employees. If the employee will not lead to dissatisfaction and poor performance in abrasion or low productivity.
  
The objectives of human resource management may also include-

1.To create and use a workforce capable and motivated to achieve the objectives of the basic organization.

2.To establish and maintain a solid organizational structure and desirable cooperation between all members of the organization.

3.To provide an opportunity for expression and voice in management.

4.To a fair, acceptable and effective management.

5.To ensure the integration of individuals and groups within the organization coordinating the various groups and objectives with those of society.

6.To create facilities and opportunities for individual and group development to match the growth of the organization.

7.To provide facilities and working conditions and to create a favorable atmosphere for maintaining stability and growth.

8.To strengthen and appreciate the human assets continuously by providing training and development.

9.To maintain employee morale and healthy relationships by maintaining and improving the various conditions and facilities.

10.To consider contributing to the minimization of socio-economic ills such as unemployment, underemployment, inequalities in the distribution of income and wealth and well-being of society by improving employment opportunities for women and disadvantaged sections of society, etc.

11.To identify and respond to individual and collective needs by providing adequate and equitable wages, incentives, benefits and social security measures and challenging work, prestige, recognition, security, status, etc.

12.To achieve effective utilization of human resources in achieving the objectives of the organization.

Business Negotiation

What makes the various international negotiations?
It is suggests that two general relationships influence international negotiations: the environmental context and the immediate context. The environmental context includes the environmental forces that neither negotiator controls that affect the negotiations. The immediate context includes factor, s negotiators seem to have some control.

Environmental context
Salacuse (1988) identified six factors associated with the environment, the more difficult for national negotiations international negotiations makes it: the political and legal pluralism, international business, foreign govts, bureaucracies, instability of ideology and culture.

Political and legal pluralism:
Companies that operate in different countries with different legal and political systems. It can have an impact on the organization pays taxes, labor codes or standards that must be met, and the various codes of contract law and the application level. In addition, political considerations can help or harm business negotiations in different countries at different times. For example, the open environment in the former Soviet republic in 1990 is very different from the closed environment in 1960

International Economics:
The exchange value of international currencies fluctuate naturally, and this factor is to be taken into account in the negotiations in the individual countries. What is the currency of the contract is to be made? The risk is usually greater for the party that pays in the currency of another country. The less stable currency, the greater the risk for both parties. Moreover, any change in the value of a currency significantly to the value of the agreement for both sides, a valuable for both sides alternating offer in a windfall for one and a great loss for the other

Government and foreign governments:
Countries differ in the extent that the government regulates industries and organizations. Companies from the United States are relatively free of government interference, although some industries are heavily regulated than others, and some states have more stringent environmental regulations than others. Generally trade negotiations in the United States occur without government approval. However, the government in many developing countries and communist monitors imports and joint ventures, and often a government agency has a monopoly on the treatment of foreign organizations closely.

Instability:
Companies trading in North America are used to a certain degree of stability, which is not available in many parts of the world. The instability can take many forms, including a lack of resources that Americans often wait for Trade Negotiations (paper, electricity and computers), the lack of other goods and services (food, reliable transportation, drinking water), and political instability (shots shot changes in government policy., major currency appreciation.) The challenge for the international negotiators to anticipate and accurately enough lead time to adjust their consequences. Salacuse (1988) suggests that negotiators face volatile situations should clauses in their contracts that include simply allow cancellation or neutral arbitration, consider purchasing insurance policies to secure the contract.


Ideology:
Negotiators in the United States, generally a common ideology, on the advantages of individual rights, the superiority of private investment and the importance of making a profit in the company (Salacuse 1988). Negotiators from other countries do not always share this ideology. For example, from other countries, the negotiators (eg, China, France) on the role of collective rights are considered more important than the rights of individuals and the public investment as a better allocation of resources for private investment. Ideological confrontation increases the communication challenges in the international negotiations in the broadest because the parties negotiated on the basic conflict about the importance levels.


Culture:
It is difficult when the fundamental beliefs about what is being negotiated, and how is it different. The essential role of intercultural negotiations and other international culture are mentioned. People from different cultures seem to negotiate different. In addition to people from different cultures and different basic negotiation process are to be interpreted differently. After Salacuse (1988), people in some cultures the deductive approach negotiations (they move from general to specific), while people of other cultures are more inductive she settled. Onto a series of specific questions about the field of general agreement

External stakeholders
External stakeholders such as "various persons and organizations that have an interest or stake in the outcome of the negotiations." These actors are professional associations, trade unions and messages, and association, among others. Eg to the union were negotiating with foreign companies because of the fear that domestic jobs oppose lost. International negotiators can have a lot of support and guidance of their government. by the Commercial Section of the Embassy and other business people through professional associations.

Levels of conflict
The level of conflict and the nature of the interdependence between the parties to a cross - cultural negotiation will have an impact on the negotiation process and outcomes. These very conflicts based on ethnicity, identity and geography, are difficult to solve. The conflicts in Northern Ireland, the Middle East and Sudan are just a few examples. There is historical evidence, however, that civil wars have a comprehensive agreement and institutionalized, which prohibits the use of coercion and promotes equitable distribution of resources and political power lead to greater stability requirements completed.

How To Solve Case Study

A case study is a collection of facts and data on a real or hypothetical business situation. The purpose of a case study, it is your ability to solve business problems, improve a logical framework. The issues in a case are generally not unique to a particular person, a company or an industry, and they often deal with more than one element of the strategy of retail. Sometimes the material is represented in the case of conflict. For example, two managers may agree on a strategy or there may be different interpretations of the same facts.
In all case studies, we must analyze what is presented and indicate what specific measures are best to resolve important issues. These measures should take into account the information in the case and the environment against the company.

STEPS in the resolution of a case study
The analysis has these stages:
  1. Presentation of the facts surrounding the case.
  2. Identification of key issues.
  3. List of policy options that could be taken.
  4. Evaluation of alternative courses of action.
  5. Recommendation of the best course of action.

Presentation of the facts surrounding the case
It is helpful to read a deal until you are presented with the information it contains. Replays are often an aid to understanding the facts, possible strategies, or questions that must be addressed and that was not already obvious. Used in the investigation of a case where you are a retail consultant company. While facts must be accepted as true, statements, rulings and decisions of individuals should be interviewed made in a case, especially if not supported by facts or when a person contradicts another.
During your reading of the case, you should emphasize interpret key facts, figures and diagrams, critical comments from individuals to assess the rationality of past and current decisions and prepare questions whose answers could be useful to treat the key question (s).

Identification of Key Issue (s)
The facts in a case often the central question (s) to a dealer, new possibilities of changing environment, a deterioration of the competitive position or excess inventories refer. Identify the characteristics and impact of the problem (s) and examined, using the material of the case and the text. Sometimes you need to dive deep, because the central question (s) and their properties are not immediately obvious.

Listing Alternative Courses of Action That Could Be Taken
Then, alternative measures regarding the central question (s) in the case will be listed. Consider the possibilities of action on their relevance to the company and the situation. Thus, the advertising strategy is not just to a small neighborhood stationery store for a great gift shop in a local mall. Action proposed to be taken into consideration factors such as the business category, the objectives, the customer market, the overall strategy, product, competition, regulatory restrictions, economic development, trends Plans market, financial resources, staff functions and sources.

Evaluation of alternatives
Evaluate each option, as the case data, the central question (s) and strategic concepts in the text, and the business environment. Specific criteria must be used and each option analyzed on the basis of them. Effects and risks associated with each alternative should be considered. Must not contain critical data in the event can be mentioned.

Recommendation of the best course of action
Make sure that your analysis is not only a summary of the case. Let your teacher based on how you identify key issues or problems, outline and assess alternative courses of action and reach realistic conclusions (the size of the retailer, competition, the picture, and so on into account) are criticized. You must demonstrate an understanding of the principles of strategic management and commercial cases. Be specific about what alternative more desirable that the dealer is in its current context. Remember that your goal is a process of logical reasoning are detailed. A written report must demonstrate this process.

What is Green Marketing

Does green marketing, pricing, promotion and distribution of products that do not harm the environment. Ecologist evaluate products to determine their impact on the environment and commitment to the marketing environment. Environmentally friendly products are approved and societies, the Green signal can be used in advertising and packaging.

OBJECTIVE OF GREEN MARKETING:
A) eliminating the concept of waste: waste and pollution are usually the result of inefficiency. Therefore, instead of things without waste waste management.

B) Reinvest the idea of ​​product: Consumables products can be placed in the soil after use and sustainable could be used and returned to the manufacturer.
C) make profitable Ecology consumers begin to recognize that competition in the market between companies should not harming the environment, and those who try to be to save him.

DEFINITION:
    "Green marketing involves all activities to generate and facilitate any exchange intended to satisfy human needs occurs and desires as satisfying these needs and desires, natural with minimal adverse effects on the environment"

IMPORTANCE OF GREEN MARKETING: 
  • Commercial companies perceive green marketing as an opportunity to be used to their objectives can be reached.
  • Many companies are beginning to realize that a member of the larger community they should behave in a respectful environment. Therefore, the questions will be integrated into the corporate culture of the company.
  • Government. Agencies create more regulations for hazardous waste control industry.Govt try to encourage companies and individuals to more environmentally responsible.
  • Firms marketing of environmentally friendly products and services a competitive advantage over companies that market-friendly products and services do not have environment.
GREEN marketing problems:
Ensure that marketing activities are not misleading to the industry and not to the prescribed rules is the main problem in green marketing. Green marketing claim must:

          - Clarify the benefits for the environment.
          - Explain how the environmental benefits are achieved.
          - Explain comparative differences.
          - Use only significant words and images.

Jun 3, 2013

Reasons to Segment your Markets

There are several important reasons why companies try to segment their markets carefully. These are summarized below

  1. A better match between the needs of customers: Customers' needs are different. Creating separate offers for each segment of the senses and offers customers a better solution
  2. Improved profits for the company: customers have another disposable income. They differ in how they are price sensitive. By segmenting markets, businesses can increase average prices and improve profits
  3. Better growth opportunities: market segmentation to increase sales. For example, customers can "trade up" after he is promoted to a particular product with a product launch, introduced cheap
  4. Retain more customers changing client circumstances, for example, they age, form families, to change jobs or get a promotion, change their buying habits. Marketing of products that appeal to customers at different stages of their lives ("life cycle"), can bind a business customer that otherwise competing products and brands could change
  5. Target marketing communications, companies must deliver their marketing message to a public customer in question. If the target market is too broad, there is a strong danger that go (1) lost major customers and (2) the cost of communicating with customers too high / unprofitable. For the target customer segmentation can be achieved more often and at a lower cost
  6. Gain stock market segment: If a company has a strong hand or a leader, it is unlikely that maximize profitability. Minor notes suffer from a lack of economies of scale in production and marketing, print distributors and limited space on the shelves.
Through careful targeting and segmentation, companies can often achieve competitive production and marketing costs and the first choice of customers and dealers. In other words, segmentation provides the opportunity for small businesses to compete with larger ones.

Monopolistic Competition MBA Notes


A large number of companies, product differentiation, competition on price, quality and product marketing, and businesses are free to come and go: Monopolistic competition is characterized by four factors.

A large number of companies
The large number of companies means
  • A small market share of each company.
  • The domination of one company, so that no one fixed the shares directly to the actions of other companies.
  • Agreement is impossible because there are so many companies.

Product differentiation
Product differentiation makes a product that is slightly different from that of companies competing products. As a result, there are not perfect substitutes and if the monopolistic competitive firm faces a downward-sloping demand curve.

Competition on quality, price and marketing
A monopolistically competitive firm will compete on:

Quality
A company promotes the idea that their product has better quality than their competitors' products. These attributes include the design, reliability, service for the buyer and the buyer easy access to the product.

Price
A monopolistically competitive firm, the company is fixed at both its price and its performance against a downward-sloping demand curve.

Marketing
A company uses advertising and packaging of its products known for uniqueness.

In and out
If firms in monopolistic competition earn an economic profit in the short term, new firms enter the market. This increase in supply and demand takes each company lowers the price until gaining a normal profit. If companies are short-term economic losses, some firms exit the industry. The price rises to a normal profit is earned by other companies.

Identifying Monopolistic Competition.
The ratio of four-firm concentration
Dynamic models of oligopoly: Harwood Fundamentals of Applied Economics
The concentration ratio of four companies is the percentage of the value of the share of sales of the four largest firms in a sector. A ratio of four-firm concentration exceeds 60 percent, is considered indicative of a market that is highly concentrated and dominated by a few companies of an oligopoly. Less than 40 percent ratio is considered an indication of monopolistic competition in the competitive market.

Herfindahl-Hirschman Index
The Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) is the square of the percentage (or the sum of all firms, if under age 50) are a combined market share of each company in the 50 largest firms in the market . If the HHI is greater than 1,800, the market is considered competitive. This is as a guide by the Ministry of Justice to make decisions on whether to challenge a merger used.

Limitations of concentration ratios

a. The geographic scope of the market
Concentration ratios have a national perspective on the market, but some products are in regional markets (in this case, the degree of competition may be overestimated) and others in global markets (in this case, the degree of competition could be underestimated) sold.
b. Barriers to entry and firm turnover
Concentration ratios do not take into account the presence or absence of barriers to entry.

Jun 2, 2013

Top Online MBA Programs in America


It was not so long ago that the idea of an MBA program online seemed strange. Why settle for a third-rate education in a for-profit school whose courses have been widely taught by badly paid teachers supplement?

But in recent years, a large number of impressive universities online MBA started so that the cyber option a viable choice, especially for the many people who study executive programs in the programs of part-time evening or the weekend.

The big question is when schools the best online MBA programs? U.S. News & World Report has attempted to answer this question this year with a goal of numerical ranking the finest deals on the Internet. But it was a very flawed and simply manipulated ranking, which raised as many questions as answers. Surprisingly, the online MBA lies above all other News USA is Washington State University Business School, who has failed to make our list of the top 100 MBA programs full time.

Not to be confused with "link farms" for real rank MBA programs online
The Economist also has online programs in the history, place, although his latest special report is dated distance learning something, having come in 2010. Rather than numerical rankings for each of the 16 programs evaluated, the British magazine chose instead the outstanding programs are good, average or bad review. Only two schools "excellent" program applies to both: the University of Florida and IE Business School in Spain. 3 other schools were "good". It is with the Thunderbird School of Global Management programs, Indiana University Kelley School MBA and the euro, a consortium of European business schools. The distance learning program in 2 schools, Imperial College Business School and the Royal Holloway School of Management in London were both considered "bad."

Potential students will also find a lot of sites that declare to the best options online rank, but almost all of them are a little more "link farms" that raise a levy or click the payment if someone tries added information about any of the programs listed. But any website that does not have online programs to offer detailed information on the methodology with specific data backup explanations for each school is pretty useless. Be extremely cautious about these false classifications, which often try to mix profit schools with legitimate academic institutions.

Because numerous universities in the online world today is, and their recognition rates are significantly higher than their MBA programs to full-time, there is no reason to study at the University of Phoenix, Kaplan , Capella drop off organization or other academic and professional credibility is lacking. Luxury does not come cheap, however. The most expensive cost online MBA about $ 75,000 and with a higher $ 118,000 for the new program at Carnegie Mellon much price that the University of Phoenix no-frills program, which goes for any something like $ 28,000.

At least 21 of the 100 best business schools now offer online MBA programs
We think that the best online MBA programs are just among the best business schools. The final test for any degree is the standing of the school, which was granted. To this end, we took our ranking of the leading programs and MBA schools full-time have not yet filtered through online versions of their MBA degrees. This implement leads to a ranking of the best business schools with MBA programs online. In total, there are seven business schools in the top 50 in the U.S. now offer online MBA programs: Carnegie Mellon, the University of North Carolina, Indiana University, Penn State, Babson College, Arizona State University Northeastern University. There are 14 other business schools in the 2nd half of the 100 schools, including George Washington University, the University of Florida and the University of Arizona, for their first course starts in September 2013.

Over the list you go, the more likely it is that the online option is as close as you can get a copy if you were on campus. It is much more likely to be taught by the same faculty to full-time and take all commercial basis in the MBA program on campus. In almost all cases, the MBA degree, you will receive exactly the same degree that students on campus full-time receive.

While new online MBA programs that are launched on an almost weekly basis in recent times in life, the top-ranked schools with online programs now constitute a huge group offers students many rewarding opportunities grass. Most of them are joint programs that join online learning with on campus retreats and dives. Many programs to students specialize on particular areas of corporate finance and entrepreneurial management of the world supply chain and sustainable development.

It is also important to mention that there are several very good non-US options available, including the global online MBA program of IE Business School in Spain and Warwick Business School MBA through distance learning.

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