Mar 31, 2010

MBA study material-International & Global marketing

What is International Marketing ?

International marketing is simply the application of marketing principles to more than one country. However, there is a crossover between what is commonly expressed as international marketing and global marketing, which is a similar term. For the purposes of this lesson on international marketing and those that follow it, international marketing and global marketing are interchangeable.

The intersection is the result of the process of internationalization. Many American and European authors see international marketing as a simple extension of exporting, whereby the marketing mix is simply adapted in some way to take into account differences in consumers and segments. It then follows that global marketing takes a more standardized approach to world markets and focuses upon sameness, in other words the similarities in consumers and segments. So let's take a look at some generally accepted definitions.
What is International Marketing?

At its simplest level, international marketing involves the firm in making one or more marketing mix decisions across national boundaries. At its most complex level, it involves the firm in establishing manufacturing facilities overseas and coordinating marketing strategies across the globe.

Doole and Lowe (2001).

International Marketing is the performance of business activities that direct the flow of a company's goods and services to consumers or users in more than one nation for a profit.

Cateora and Ghauri (1999)

International marketing is the application of marketing orientation and marketing capabilities to international business.

Muhlbacher, Helmuth, and Dahringer (2006)

The international market goes beyond the export marketer and becomes more involved in the marketing environment in the countries in which it is doing business.

Keegan (2002)


What is Global Marketing?

Global marketing refers to marketing activities coordinated and integrated across multiple country markets.

Johansson (2000)

. . . The result is a global approach to international marketing. Rather than focusing on country markets, that is, the differences due to the physical location of customers groups, managers concentrate on product markets, that is, groups of customers seeking shared benefits or to be served with the same technology, emphasizing their similarities regardless of geographic areas in which they are located.

Muhlbacher, Helmuth, and Dahringer (2006)


Global/transnational marketing focuses upon leveraging a company's assets, experience and products globally and upon adapting to what is truly unique and different in each country.

Keegan (2002)


So, as with many other elements of marketing, there is no single definition of international marketing, and there could be some confusion about where international marketing begins and global marketing ends. These lessons will assume that both terms are interchangeable, and will define international marketing as follows:

International marketing is simply the application of marketing principles to more than one country.

Bibliography
Doole, I. and Lowe, R. (2001), International Marketing Strategy - Analysis, Development and Implementation, Thomson Learning, 3rd Ed.
Johansson, J.K. (2000), Global Marketing - Foreign Entry, Local Marketing, and Global Management, Johansson, International Edition.
Cateora, P.R., and Ghauri, P.N. (1999), International Marketing, McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, European Edition.
Muhlbacher, H., Helmuth, L. and Dahringer, L. (2006), International Marketing - A Global Perspective, Thomson, 3rd Ed.
Keegan, W.J., (2002), Global Marketing Management, Prentice Hall, 7th Ed.

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