Dec 11, 2011

History of Corporate Social Responsibility

The view that a company might commitments that go beyond economic role is not new in many ways. While the recorded history was the role of organizations providing goods and services for the market and are often related to the roles of political, social and / or military. For example, through the early stages of development of the Business Development in England (where organizations such as the Hudson Bay Company and the East India Company received a broad mandate) there was an understanding of public policy that encourages companies to achieve social goals such as exploring the colonial territory, the establishment of settlements, the provision of transport services, the development of banking and financial services, etc.
During the 19th century, society has to be a form of corporate organization is developing rapidly in the United States. it took a commercial form that the responsibilities of the board of directors and management to the shareholders (ie the duty of loyalty) is defined. In this later evolutionary form, public policy often discussed certain social sectors like health and safety at work, consumer protection, labor practices, environmental protection, etc. For example, the company responsible reacts social, because they were forced by the law and public Rules match. They also have voluntarily responded to market demands that social morality and taste of consumers is reflected. By the middle of the twentieth century, was the social responsibility in the United States of experts in corporate governance, such as Peter Drucker and business CSR literature has shown, discussed and still be a key business management, marketing, accounting, and the concern of the United States, Europe, Canada and elsewhere.

Harvard Business Review on Corporate Social Responsibility traditionally in the US, CSR has more defined in terms of a model of philanthropy. The companies have profits unhindered except by fulfilling their duty to pay taxes. Then some of the profits donated to charity.Regarded as tainting the act for the company does not consider benefits of giving. The first generation of CSR in this way shows how companies can not be responsible in any way, affect, and can contribute to business success. Corporate Philanthropy is the practice of companies of all sizes and industries makes donations to a variety of social, economic and others as part of a strategy of global corporate citizenship address.

The 2nd generation is now developing where companies and CSR as an integral part of long-term corporate strategy. Companies are taking it seriously and a business perspective, progressive, usually respond to CSR with a focus on new opportunities as a way of relationships between economic, social and ecological factors in the market. Companies believe that this approach provides a clear competitive advantage and promotes corporate innovation.

In the last decade, CSR and related concepts such as corporate citizenship and sustainability of businesses expanded. This is in response to new challenges have arisen as to the increased globalization on the agenda of managers as well as for related stakeholder communities. It is now part of both the vocabulary and agenda of scientists, experts, NGOs, consumer organizations, employees, suppliers, shareholders and investors.

3rd generation of CSR is required to make a significant contribution to the fight against poverty and environmental degradation. It will go on voluntary approaches to individual companies and organizations, the market in which they operate and how they are regulated, to rebuild all markets towards sustainability to influence participation.

The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI)

(GRI), The Global Reporting Initiative is a multi-stakeholder process and independent institution whose mission is to develop and disseminate globally applicable Sustainability Reporting Guidelines. These guidelines are intended for use by organizations for reporting on the environmental, economic and social activities, products and services. The GRI includes the active participation of representatives from business, investment, human rights, accounting, environment, research and trade unions around the world.

Started in 1997 by the Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economies (CERES), the GRI became independent in 2002 and is a center official cooperation of United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and works with the Global Compact of the UN Secretary General. Guidelines of the GRI Sustainability Reporting cover a broad spectrum of social responsibility issues related to organization

(1) Economic performance (such as wages and benefits, training, research and development)

(2) Environmental performance (eg usage, energy, water and materials, emissions of greenhouse gas emissions, land use / biodiversity), and

(3) Social services (such as labor and human rights, health and safety, employee retention).

In addition to the basic guidelines of the GRI,  it is also responsible for developing a set of guidelines for dietary supplement industry, for example, financial and mining communities. While the GRI is a reference book / Only there is a growing influence in the debate on ways and means should a company structure and governance transparency and reporting, and sustainability efforts in general.

Nov 5, 2011

Executive MBA in Technology Management

Today is the achievement of professional standards, not only in depth and thorough understanding of organizations, including an overview of the business, such as the sustainable development of values ​​and ethics of social responsibility for the United personal development for new concepts and professional manner and ways for students to do business to achieve.

The Executive MBA is designed to connect to strengthen leadership, management of people and by their own instructional design, the participatory approach and pragmatic analytical skills with a passion for innovation.

The online Executive MBA is an online experience of at least five years experience in providing assurance that the crucial step in the search for employment and training for the challenge, it has to fulfill. An on-line process in which the University pioneered the same quality and offers educational content to our classroom courses for those in need, depending on geographic location and time availability of educational opportunities that can unite the practice. Those who feel that covers an important phase in their lives, but they understand that the current changes may also provide an opportunity to advance their career.

Reach today requires some knowledge of a complete and thorough professional organizations and an overview of the business world, where values ​​such as sustainability, social responsibility and ethics in business is the personal and professional development of people associate looking for new destinations, new roads and enjoy a new concept in the way of doing business.

Program strengthens the leadership and people management and employs a pragmatic and participatory approach to the new global environment through its international programs and practical experience. Online University MBA will help you in your efforts to grow personally and an entrepreneurial career, creatively, emotionally, and awareness of the real needs that the market demands.

The challenges in the near future, the companies will be treated by continuous innovation and the incorporation of sustainable elements, those people with a strong emphasis on social development. These companies need professionals who can combine technical training with an overview of business management.

The MBA in Technology Management Online is for professionals in technical training and experience of at least three years, which are needed to expand their business opportunities and expand basic education MBA is designed. The program teaches Virtual University has developed three modules, and also to promote entrepreneurship, to include the complete business plan.

Curriculum Online Executive MBA program is to keep an eye on the overall business strategy and content. An important feature of this program is its flexibility. Research institutions or universities that offer this online program seriously good will and credibility. Build a curriculum and activities in the field of practice tests accordingly. Thus, the proposed work and simulations are important Executive MBA online.

E-learning, as it must depend primarily on the Internet. Of course, the tables are electronic media, editorial chat, video conference, audio and video clips online, so university is willing to offer 24 hour service. There are many national and international institutions, the online MBA.

Oct 5, 2011

MBA Notes - The Monopoly Market

There is a single seller in monopoly. This is exactly the opposite of perfect competition.

  • There is only one company that sells the product.
  • The company has no direct rivals or competitors.
  • Substitutes may exist. However, close substitutes are not available.
  • Difficult entry for other companies.
  • Monopoly is the price that producers and tried the best available, demand and cost conditions, without the fear of new businesses that take in the competition.
  • Monopoly is not a permanent condition. For reasons such as the development of substitutes, the entry of new firms, etc., a company that is now a monopoly not a monopoly may in the future.
Prices under monopoly
Aggregation as a mechanism to sell multiple optimal for a monopolist good. The price and monopoly power are determined based on certain assumptions, the price discrimination monopoly, companies are not defined. It aims to maximize returns. The individual buyer is a price taker and the company holds a monopoly in the state of no restrictions in terms of price.

    The company monopoly control of both the price and supply of the goods, but one at a time.
    The firm's demand curve is the same as the demand curve in the industry.

a) prices in the short term
The monopolist seeks to gain increasing performance to a level where the additional income to maximize cost extra. A monopoly can be profit or losses in the short term.

The company can benefit by making the price higher than the cost and demand, caused by the specified units of the commodity.
Puck Magazine April 29.1885 - Jay Gould and monopolists may-pole
But the company may suffer losses as well due to the request of his misjudgment in determining the price or determination. In addition, the risk of competitors, the prices set below cost leading to a loss in the end.

The monopoly in the short term may be to price or quantity. He can not fix both. The company has a strategy to maximize profits or minimize losses led to the development. The company must be alert to the possibility of its competitors.

b) Pricing In The Long Run
The short-term gains would certainly attract other companies to enter the market. With the entry of new firms in the market would change from a monopoly to oligopoly or perfect competition.

If the control of society for scarce resources, it may prohibit the entry of new companies and take advantage of their monopoly. In the long run, it is not necessary that companies use their existing equipment to optimize its performance due to the lack of competition.

However, it is necessary for the company to take a loss on the long term. The size of the facility and how they can be used depends on the demand for raw materials.

A monopolist is in a better position to exploit the market and may limit the penetration of external companies in the industry. It is the concentration of economic power in the market where a monopoly exists.

Sep 2, 2011

Essential Characteristics of Management By Objectives and its Limitations

Characteristics or Features of MBO.
  • Management by objectives is a philosophy or a system, not just technology.
  • It emphasized the participatory agreement on objectives.
  • It clearly defines the responsibilities of each in terms of results.
  • If focuses attention on what needs to be done (goals0 be rather than how it should be done.
  • It converts the objective needs as personal objectives at all levels within the organization.
  • It sets norms or standards (goals) and directs the operation as a basis for performance evaluation.
  • This system is intentionally directed to achieve effective and efficient organizational and personal goals.
  •  MBO process (or cycle management by objective and key elements of management by objectives, or the minimum of management by objectives.
There are four important and necessary steps or elements in the process of management by objectives as follows:
Set goals.
Objective or goal setting is a multistage process. It begins with the investigating judge of STAT3 current affairs, efficiency, the threats and opportunities. Then the key will be identified by areas such as commodity markets, better service, lower costs, simplify the work, employee motivation, innovation, efficiency and social responsibility. The performance of these sectors is essential for the organization in the sense that errors in these areas can lead to failure of the organization. And that is why they are known as the "key" outcome area. Peter said that the targets are in all areas where performance and results directly important to the survival and prosperity of the economy.

Subsequently, the setting of targets or joint interaction. Subordinates are actively involved in the formulation of objectives at each level in the organization of such goals in relation to the overall objectives of the organization done. He is careful to goals that are measurable and contribute to the element. These goals can be long rang, rang, medium or short range. In addition, the availability of resources is also an important aspect to always put in some goals. It is always necessary to decide about priorities between the different objectives without compromising the environment in which business operates, as well as possible further changes.

Development of action plans.
Define the objectives to be translated into action plans. It requires the allocation of specific responsibilities for various departments, offices and individuals. It also requires the allocation of resources to fulfill the assigned tasks. The dimensions of time are also determined so that the objectives be achieved without unnecessary delay.

Regular review and monitoring of progress.
Set your goals and action plans, it is necessary to establish an appropriate monitoring system to keep the activities regularly. This progress is not the path followed to date, the ultimate goal. It ensures that finding the differences, if any, are to be taken studied in depth and immediate remedial action to bring them in order on the court. Such regular monitoring and periodic review not only provide feedback that is completed in time. But also motivates managers responsible for performance. Regular review and monitoring are done at the departmental level, usually.

The performance evaluation.
This is the final phase of the MBO, which evaluates the annual performance. The annual review or evaluation is complete and occurs at the level of the organization. The actual results are measured against annual targets. Such an assessment is also used to determine the objectives for the next year to take for the modification of standards (goals0 if necessary, and appropriate measures to avoid gaps goals prescribed form.

Limitations /Weakness /Disadvantages of MBO

Unfavorable attitude of the manager.
Some managers have an attitude that takes them by the steady loss of MBO system that relies heavily on his busy schedule and is not consistent with their duties.

Problems about Goal Setting.
MBO requires the issuance of a warrant, detailed guidelines for goal setters, the following difficulties in setting goals:
  •  The active and positive participation of his subordinates is not easy to leave.
  • Truly verifiable targets offered simply to formalize
  • Emphasis will be placed in short-term goals, while long-term goals are to be avoided, drive long-term goals of crucial importance for growth and development of the organization
  • The objectives are inflexible and rigid. For example, the changes are desirable annual budget adopted not only in the middle of the year.
  • Over-use of quantitative targets at risk, the qualitative aspect, which can be more important than the quantification, in some cases.
  • Orecedebce or more goals take precedence over those who can use them. Each action is unacceptable in this series to achieve the Gilas, without regard to their impact on humans. So come all these difficulties in the way of management by objectives in the operation of an organization. It also includes the management of more of the target.
  • Time the nature of management by objectives. Management by objectives takes time, especially in the early stages of its introduction, if employees are not with the process.

Management by Objectives (MBO ) and Benefits of MBO

Management by Objectives (MBO) has become a popular slogan. There is a mentality that takes the basic high-performance manager, the task of corporate governance. The concept of management by objectives was coined by Peter Drucker in 1954. He expressed the concept of management by objectives, and then emphasized it is developed as a management philosophy. Some authors have used the term interchangeably with a results-oriented management by objectives management.

Management by objectives is a comprehensive management philosophy that focuses on the goals and the final results. Management by objectives based on the assumption that the people better if they know what is expected of them and can put their personal goals with organizational goals refer to. It also assumes that making people better if they expect what they know and can put their personal goals with organizational goals. It also assumes that people are interested in the objective settlement process and evaluate their performance against the target.
Some important definitions of MBO can be specified as follows:

George S. Odiorne.
The system of management by objectives can be used as process through which managers and subordinates to define the organization to share their common goals each area a great responsibility in relation to the expected results are described by him, and with these measures as guidelines for the operation to evaluate the device and the contribution of each member.

Peter Drucker.
He says that management by objectives and self-control is a management philosophy. Based on a concept of human action. Human behavior and motivation. MBO is for any manager at all levels and for all companies, whether large or small. He says that management by objectives, performance guarantees by transforming the objective needs as personal objectives.

Heinz Weihrich and Harold Knoontz.
MBO is a complete management system that a number of key management activities in a systematic way, which is directed deliberately at the effective and efficient organizational and individual objectives integrated.

Stress balance on the objectives. MBO forces managers with the goals of load balancing set of key areas. Terms of crises will be avoided to take place in the organization.

Better management. MBO forces managers to plan for the results and think not only for planning activities or work. Managers are required to ensure that objectives are realistic and necessary resources are made available to subordinates to achieve goals. Clearly, setting goals for his subordinates to serve as standards for evaluation, and the reasons for them. Sun MBO to improved administration.

Better organized. Positions in the company can be built around the key result areas. Managers are required to clarify roles and organizational structures. Therefore, to better organize.

Increase employee involvement and commitment. When the MBO program is installed in an organization, people will not only work, following the instructions and wait for the leadership and shape the decisions and things are not dictated by their superiors. They are now people with clearly defined objectives that were identified by their own participation in the formal process.

Orderly growth of the organization. MOB provides for the maintenance and the orderly growth of the organization defined set of goals for everyone involved. It also provides the measure of what is actually achieved. Progress and even the office of management by objectives, emphasizes the ability, competence and success of managers, rather than their personality. The orderly growth and development of the organization is assured.

Development of effective controls. MBO not only sharpens the planning, but also the development of effective controls. It is stated explicitly checked regularly and annual performance appraisals, as the necessary feedback for streamlining goals or objectives. It allows a manager's own performance, deg4ree high self-control that is a strong motivation to manage.

Creating an ideal atmosphere. Doughlas McGregor says, motivation, who are the potential for capacity development of responsibility, the will to direct behavior toward organizational goals present in all people. Management did not, there is. The essential task of management is to organize the conditions of organization and working methods.

Objective assessment.Management by objectives provides a basis for evaluating the performance of a subordinate, because the goals (standards) are set jointly with the supervisor and subordinates.

Aug 12, 2011

Guidelines for a Formal Report

Final presentation of the official report consists of three sections: the first round as the accompanying letter, the title page, table of contents and a summary and the body, which includes an introduction, discussion of results and summary of findings and recommendations, and additional components such as the works cited, bibliography and notes .

Letter of transmittal
First impressions are important, as the letter or memo authorizing the report should be seriously considered. The letter must:
    Deliver the report ("This is the report requested by ')
    An overview of the report
    Offer to meet to discuss the contents

Page Title
The first page of a report contains the report title, the name of the recipient or the recipient, the name of the author and the company, date and sometimes a series of reports.

An abridged version of the entire report, in non-technical, short written and informative, usually describes the salient features of the report draws a core message, and make a recommendation, always written last, after the rest of the report was written.

Table of Contents
Displays the content and layout of the report, always include a list of plants, and sometimes a list of illustrations.

Prepares the reader for the forthcoming discussion are the purpose and scope of the report and provides background information so that readers can read and intelligent discussion. The introduction should motivate the reader. The reader should understand why the problem has been studied and why the study is a contribution to existing knowledge. Guffey and Nagle (2003) propose the introduction contains seven items:
  1. Explaining how the report was created and why it is not allowed.
  2. Description of the problem that the report and asked specific questions to be solved.
The purpose of the report.
Scope (boundaries) and limitations or restrictions on research.
Sources and methods of information gathering.
Summary of results, whether the report is written after the deduction.
To follow from the main sections of the report, provides the consistency and the transition to the reader.

The introductory paragraph is usually followed by a review of the literature, often given the heading "Background". The literature is at least the following objectives in the report:
  1. Put research into a historical context to show familiarity with relevant developments.
  2. Distinguish what has been done, what needs to be done.
  3. Demonstrates how to use your research is based on previous knowledge by presenting and evaluating what is already known about your research topic.
  4. A point of reference for the interpretation of your own conclusions. Its report shows how extended your study, revised or improved skills in one area.
The objective of the review of the literature is "the logical continuity between previous and present works" demonstrate (APA, 1994, p. 11).

Discussion of Results/Findings
There to do a story that understand all the details, facts and data through the reader what the author has tried what he or she actually found and what he needed or she thinks, should the following fact.

Official reports often visual aids to highlight, summarize or clarify information. Some general guidelines apply to the use of visual aids: the visual material must have titles and headings, should be visually identified and discussed in the text, they need to be near her are in the text, they should, vertically on the page, and the source credited, if his every country. Use graphics software to create professional-looking graphics.

A summary of the main conclusions or milestones in the discussion, the conclusions are only opinions can never defend the action.

If the discussion and conclusions suggest that certain measures should be taken, the recommendations is to do what categorically.
A list of the documents used to complete the project is complete and the author believes will be useful for the reader contains enough information for the reader to correctly identify and order the documents.

At the end of the report, all references are included on a page titled "References", as shown.

Corporate Author:

It is recommended that a bibliography listing all sources consulted in the research, whether quoted or not, in fact, be included in an official report.

A section at the end of the report that the required data (eg charts, diagrams, photos, technical data and test results), which is deservedly in the discussion, but if it contains trapped with him, and would interfere with the disorder the grand narrative.

10 Principles of Economics

Understanding 10 principles is the key to understanding the whole concept of the economy.

How we make decisions that we make compromises that we have chosen something more something else, or we must give up something else I have. Decisions include how to buy a child a compromise between the money for themselves, money and the child's needs, but also includes trade from the moment you give up your personal information or leisure time for the baby. Shown in giving the film is a very good example of compromise. It shows a college student, to move to Washington if he wants the college has ended, and are part of the time it uses to search for tests or examinations of study for an hour for jobs Washington. The decision on its priorities over others, he faces a compromise. Society as a whole is also disadvantages: The government must decide how to spend a lot of money in some aspects of the country. Something that I personally was happy and made me think when the movie shows how we still have to compromise in the environment: "We all want clean air, but the tradeoff is the loss of income or even the loss of jobs for some Americans "means, says the presenter. I did not understand the relationship between these two until they speak for a coal company in Ohio that had to be closed because he also harmful to the environment, the consequences? Over a thousand people lost their jobs, the Council decided to have a cleaner environment, but the compromise was the loss of jobs of all employees .

Opportunity cost
What do you sacrifice to get something in its economy. The presenter and Gregory Mankiw explains this principle with a college student. To change the election four years of college gives students the costs are many. It is the cost of money in their books and tuition, and also the "opportunity cost", as Mr Mankiw, because they decided to go to college, that 'they provide is the ability to obtain employment and wages are the work would have taken. "Nothing is free, our time is worth something," said Todd Buchholz, an economist, you see that it is a charge of something no longer involved with the money, makes the cost of something, what you can do as much time with your loved ones. This segment of the film contrasts in situations where varying opportunity costs, is shown an example of how the opportunity cost of a student is quite low because that the student abandons low-paid jobs, but the opportunity cost of a very talented high school athletes offered to go directly to Professional is very high, because if they go to college, he gave millions of dollars that he won a professional athlete who decides.

Marginal Thinking
A reasonable person as a student in the film shows, think on, because if too much work to finish college instead of the job that earns money for personal expenses, they simply cut back a bit to work. It is not radical, she is finishing the adjustment, rather, they thought at the edge. Another good example is that of a Broadway that is often met with empty seats. So think on the edge, they decide to negotiate with the public and sell tickets at half price a few hours before the show, the empty spaces in the show. Adjustment of the ticket price the theater actually receives more sales, because even if they deserve 50% of original cost, which is greater than zero, if the seats would have remained empty. By rational thinking and better decisions on the board and make decisions.

If the costs and benefits of something different or to change to change our decisions. "When my son, I want to wash my car if my car says you can use it in the evening today is an incentive," said Robert Sobel of Hofstra University and is for me the best explanation of the steps incentives. The incentive is what they say to use the car that night, in other words, it benefits from, yes, but if they do not have all the incentives, it would probably to doubt it. A very good example they set, how we respond to incentives, and refers to the situation today is that how we as a reaction to gas prices. In Europe, the price of gasoline is very high, this incentive makes people buy smaller, more fuel-efficient cars, unlike America, where the price is still relatively low, and people buy big cars and vans. Did you not notice that the shops and streets were the "Tax Free Week" here in Florida packed? This is because people incentives, incentives that will benefit react, apparently you buy more, if you will not be taxed. When President Clinton was in office, he asked the price of cigarettes in the amount of one dollar and a half because it was shown that young people not to smoke and buy cigarettes. This is a perfect example of an obstacle, because it discourages young people from smoking. Another point that explains the behavior of some people taking incentives. Seat belts are now required, as it is effective in saving lives, but instead: "There is evidence that behavior change in response to that seat belts do," says Gregory, because some people exceed the speed limit because they feel safer.

Since we are not self-sufficient we operate. "People are specialized, people do certain tasks and relying on other people, doing other tasks for them," said Gregory. For example, a hairdresser cut their business services (eg haircuts) for money, and the other person relies on her hairdresser let their hair. "The idea I have something and you have something, and if we change we're both going to be better off is basically what makes the economy," says Caroline Hoxby. We as human beings and be able to survive, we act, we change, we rely on. This is explained in more detail in another example in the film. We leave in a group of dedicated farmers who grow food for us, we both benefit, because we get food, and they are paid for the production of food. Countries to trade between them, if they are good products, cheaper to sell. We work every day to survive.

Agreements are made on the markets, and prices are installed, which then communicates with the world. In the food market, farmers sell their products and supermarket owners buy and sell. Another type of market is the stamp market. Mark Easter is a stamp dealer explained that as the stock market, where dealers go for the highest price offered. The first person who works as a market, Adam Smith was the grandfather of the economy, says the first book published on the economy called "The Wealth of Nations" in 1776. How can buyers and sellers interact with each other and not create chaos? Adam Smith said, "the markets, as guided by an invisible hand at least a desirable allocation of resources." We all have interests, and if we try everything to achieve this goal, we would all be happy. The invisible hand in the film is a simple example of Mr. Sobel said he said, "If I have a $ 25 dollar and you have a good and you I want to sell it, we need to win both, they wanted the $ 25 dollars more than good, and I am the good of more than $ 25 dollars you want. "The key to the invisible hand are the prices sellers and consumers depend on them. When communism fell in Russia and Eastern Europe, he showed that the free market is the best way to operate, because people know what they want, how you want, how they want the purchase, and etc.

Sometimes the government is committed to developing better results. This occurs when one of two situations occurs. Only when the market outcome is inefficient, and second, if it fails to efficiently distribute income. In many cases, the externality is the cause of the error. "Externalize is when a business or something individual that creates an impact beyond the immediate buyer and seller of the product. Power plants are obviously for the benefit of users and buyers of electricity, but it also has an externality since the smoke they produce damage to the health of a person can. market power can also lead to market failure because a particular company or in-person to control oversize and affect prices. If the market is not fair to the government as well. Some people have their services paid more than the others, is something that can not be controlled by the invisible hand. If the government gets involved, because the situation is very complicated, more complicated, it is, the harder it is for the government to address them.
Statistics show that in 1998 the average American with an annual income of $ 31 500, which had an average of $ 8,300 Mexican and $ 1700 for the average Indian. You may find that their quality of life is not the same as the Americans are better off than the Indians. Productivity explains everything, a rich country produces more poor. And productivity depends on the skills, capital and etc. If a country has an educated workforce, productivity increases. Economic freedom and independence means more productivity. A perfect example is the United States and Hong Kong, where people are free to use their brains to goods, services or ideas that can be taken to the market where consumers benefit from them.

This essentially means that inflation, which means that prices are rising all the money that is pressure levels. Printing money is something that must be controlled, because even if it can be "temporarily make people feel richer," as stated by Todd Buchholz increase, possibly based on prices and inflation will come into play, and it is very hard to regain control. Stability between goods and money is the best way to keep inflation at bay.

The Phillips curve
The chairman of the Federal Reserve is to maintain low unemployment and inflation under control. Mr. Mankiw notes that you can not achieve both goals simultaneously and that the policy instrument is the money supply. When one rises the other falls and vice versa, it is called the Phillips curve. As the film explains that it is a compromise in the short term, you must decide on the other. But the compromise does not really exist today, because last year, both inflation and unemployment fell. This does not mean that the Phillips curve would not return in the game, say some economists.

Aug 5, 2011

MBA Project Reports- Free Downloads

Project Report on Consumer Satisfaction

Mutual Funds Project - Project on Mutual Funds is the better investments plan


Project Report on Study of Conflict Management Strategies

Project Report on Payables Management

Project Report on Effect of Welfare Measures to Employees Morale


Project Report on  Cash management of Standard Charted bank

Project on Post Recession affect on the demand of Nokia E-series

Project Report On Working Capital Analysis

Project on Study of the Customer Relationship Management

Project on Performance Appraisal System

Project report on Equities: Cash & Derivatives

Project Report on Stress Management

Jul 12, 2011

MBA Sponsorship and its Advantages

The various advantages, the company sponsoring the MBA by MBA students can benefit from are endless. Here we describe some of these benefits. Each year, employers offer sponsorship to MBA students about two-thirds of part-time MBA and a small number of students in full-time MBA.

This sponsorship MBA can take different forms: either the full or partial payment of tuition fees of the MBA program, or it may be in kind, such as study time allowance. 
  • MBA sponsorship will give managers with the tools of strategic analysis, have to enhance capacity within the organization to a long-term perspective on specific MBA students.
  • Like all MBA programs can be illustrative examples from all sectors of the economy, sponsorship of MBA offer the employees / managers, and the whole organization, in turn, with the broader knowledge base.
  • Sponsorship of MBA offers students the opportunity to be part of an international network of alumni to foster valuable contacts for the future.
  • The MBA program consists of a curriculum of learning materials that the theories and concepts, and later established international cross-industry research included, they will eventually all be reinvested in the company.
  • Part of the MBA program includes a requirement for students to submit a brief. These memories can take many forms, including a report of style or business plan. Sponsorship of MBA can often mean that the company that sponsors full right to have such a thesis will no doubt cause the company money quantify savings than the experts, the cost can be implemented, often more than the total cost of sponsoring the entire course of study MBA.
  • Sponsorship of MBA students are offered a direct impact on the organization if the students do their work on the basis of the Kingdom of the sponsor, the know-how in the electives in the MBA program.

MBA Ranking 2011

U. S. News Media Group issued in 2011, Americas Best Graduate Schools rankings, both attended Harvard University (MA) and Stanford University (California) won the first place. Yale School of Management has a place in the 11 (from 10th place ranking in the 2010 Business School).

MIT Sloan School of Management is in the top 3 (two seats in the fifth form last year) evaluated. It is also No. 1 in a series of rankings of specialty include: Information Systems, Production / Operations and Supply Chain / Logistics.

University of Pennsylvania Wharton School fell two places to No. 5 this year. Executive MBA and Finance: It is also No. 1 for the specialties of the place.

Northwestern Kellogg School of Management has a place to fourth nationally and is No. 1 for the following specialties rated: Marketing and Part-Time MBA.

The Top 15 MBA programs are:

1. Harvard Business School
1. Stanford Graduate School of Business
3. MIT Sloan
4. Kellogg / Northwestern
5. Chicago / Booth
5. Wharton / UPENN
7. Tuck / Dartmouth
7. Haas / Berkeley
9. Columbia Business School
9. NYU / Stern
11. Yale SOM
12. Ross / Michigan
13. Darden / UVA
14. Fuqua / Duke
15. Anderson / UCLA

Source: U.S. News & World Report

Jul 2, 2011

MBA Notes: Strategic Management

Benefits of Strategic Management
The main advantages of strategic management has developed better strategies by aid agencies nor systematic, logical and realistic policy options.

Strategic Management offers the following financial and non financial:

Financial benefits of strategic management
First Study shows organizations, strategic management principles tend to be better rewarded than comparing productively with those who do not.

Second most powerful organizations tend to prepare for the implementation of strategic planning for future deviations in the external and internal environment. Companies with strategic planning have excellent long-term effectiveness in line with its monetary sector.

Non-financial benefits of strategic management
To avoid the first addition to the support of the destruction of corporate money, the strategic management of real additional benefits, including increased understanding of external threats, a better understanding of the strengths of competitors, improve employee productivity decreased resistance to change, and with a clear understanding of performance and rewarding relationships.

Second addition to strengthening management and employees, strategic management is often helpful to bring order and discipline to an organization.

Need and importance of strategic management
Why we need strategic management and why is it important? Strategic management is important for the following reasons:

Due to the rapidly changing business environment: In a rapidly changing environment, strategy formulation should be regarded as a continuous process of learning.

Provides guidance: Strategic Management sets guidelines for help and support for development, and provides a base from which progress can be measured.

Systematize the decision: Strategic management helps to systematize an organization's strategic decisions and actions.

Research and development: the strategic management process allows cross-functional approach to the management of R & D to ensure that the public R & D decisions and plans must be integrated and coordinated between the various departments.

Resource allocation: Strategic Management promotes an efficient allocation of resources to the business units.

Developed communication and coordination

Helps managers a holistic approach

Strategic Management and its objectives

Strategic management is the art and science of formulation, implementation and evaluation of various operational decisions that the organization can achieve its objective described.

Concept of strategy
The term "strategy" is acquired form the Greek word "Strategos" general sense. A plan or process or set of decision rules or makes an arrangement to create a common thread.

Strategic management is the process of strategy formulation, implementation, evaluation and control to achieve the strategic goal of organizations are defined.

The main objective of strategic management is to explore and new opportunities for the future in planning experiments to optimize long-term trends of tomorrow.

The main objective of strategic management is to explore and create new opportunities for future planning any long-term attempts to maximize the trends of tomorrow.

Jun 9, 2011

HR notes- Job Design

Job design is the process of:
a)  The decision as to the contents of the contract.
b)  Decision methods for carrying out the work.
c)  The decision as to the relationship that exists within the organization.

Job analysis helps to develop the design of design tasks and employment conditions for employment with human qualities to do the job.
Factors affecting the design of tasks: - There are several factors that influence the design of work in the company.

Organizational factors: -
Organizational factors to factors within the organization, job design is related to their influence

Job characteristics: -
job characteristics refer to characteristics of the work, which involved the type of work and tasks because the organization decides how the design work must be done ever. Incase the company was not able to name many people, one job can have many tasks and vice versa.

Process or workflow within the organization: -
There is a certain order, to perform in jobs within the company. Incase the company wishes it could combine similar job and give it to someone what happened, if all jobs can come one after another in a sequence.

Ergonomics refers to good work, skills and personal qualities of the individual and providing a desktop environment that the person to complete the work faster and to help in a proper manner.

Working methods: -
Each organization has its own ways of working. Although the work is the same method to do the work differs from company to company. This is called an internship and it affects the design of tasks.

Environmental factors: -
Environmental factors that influence job design are:

Staff availability and capacity: -
Some countries face the problem of shortage of skilled workers. You are not able to staff some level of education for employment and must travel to other countries through the design of jobs are obtained affected.

Social and cultural expectations: -
The social and cultural conditions of each country is different, so if a multinational appoint an Indian, he is taken into account, such as festivals, to take the good times, the time of loss, adjust, etc in Indian conditions. This applies to all countries and therefore did design work accordingly.

Behavioral factors: -
Job design is affected by behavioral factors as well. These factors are:

Rating: -
Job design is generally prepared on the basis of job analysis and job analysis requires the employee feedback employee feedback on this place any other activity is based. Many people are not interested in a true return because of fear and uncertainty. This in turn paid tribute to employment.

Autonomy: -
Each employee and indeed a measure of freedom, its work. This is called self. So if we design a work we need to ensure that autonomy of the worker that he wear his work is actually provided, see prepare.

Variety: -
If the same job, she repeats again and again leads to stress and monotony. This leads to apathy and negligence at work. Therefore, during the preparatory work to ensure some diversity of design, the person to keep the work interesting.

HR notes-Job analysis

A job is defined as a series of duties and responsibilities that are given together with a specific employee. Job analysis is the process of investigation and recording of information on the operations and responsibilities of a particular task.
Job analysis is divided into 2 parts.
a) a job description
if the employment details are given.
b) specification of employment
where we explain the qualities of people seeking work required.
Methods of work analysis
There are various methods used by the organization to gather information and job analysis. These methods are

Personal Note: -
In this method, the viewer is actually watching the worker concerned. He made a list of tasks that the worker and the qualities needed to perform these functions on the basis of information gathered, the job analysis is ready, has carried out.

The actual performance of employment: -
In this method, the observer who is actually preparing the job analysis, the work itself. This gives him an idea of ​​the skill required, level of task difficulty, effort required, etc.

Interview: -
In this procedure, an interview is conducted with the employee. A group of experts to answer the call. They ask questions about employment, qualified and levels of difficulty. They question and cons of the issue and gather information on the basis of this analysis of employment is available.

Critical Incident Method: -
In this process, the employee is asked to write one or more critical incident occurred in the labor market. The incident gives an idea about the problem, as, skills and levels of difficulty has been treated, is so critical incident method, an idea about the work and its importance. (An important and critical incident means that anything that is in employment)

Questionnaire Method: -
In this method, a spokesman for the worker is given, and they are asked to answer the questions in it. Questions to multiple-choice questions or open questions. The questions to decide exactly how the job analysis should be performed. The method is effective because people would think twice before writing anything.

Log records: -
Companies can ask staff to ensure that the log records and job analysis can be done on the basis of information collected from the log record. A log entry is a book to include in the staff write all the activities they performed at work. The files are many and run in nature and have a good idea of ​​the tasks and duties in each job.

HRD issues: -
Records are kept of each employee from the personnel department. The file contains details of education, the name of employment, the number of years of experience, rights-managed, received in the past errors and the measures the number of promotions that work area, the area of ​​basic skills, etc. based on the analysis of employment records can be done.

Jun 8, 2011

Source of Finance for business organization

Sources of funding in the short term and long term
The activity requires two types of financing, namely:
1. Short-term financing
2. Long-term financing
Funding decisions in the short term with regard to the long-term assets and affected Liabilities and is also known as working capital financing.

In the short term financial decisions are generally the cash flow next year or in the duty cycle of the company. Normally, the short-term financing for a maximum period of 3 years.

The main sources of short-term financing are:

1. Cash Advance
2. Short-term bank loan
3. Bill discounting
4. Credit
5. Inter-corporate deposits
6. Commercial Papers
7. Factoring
8. advance of working capital from commercial banks

1. Cash Advance:
cash credit facility is generally taken to fund working capital needs of the organization. Interest is charged at the moment for the Cash Advance Bank A / C, regardless of credit through the use of the advance.

2. Short-term bank loans: bank overdraft

3. Update of the bill:
The bill discount is a source of short-term financing, ownership change was settled by the borrowers of the bank at a reduced rate.

4. Credit
Credit is an indirect form of financing working capital and banks than take the risk, the credit by the supplier itself provided.

A letter of credit by a bank on behalf of their clients issued to the seller. According to this document, the bank drafts drawn on them for deliveries to the customer's credit. I f the vendor complies with the conditions of the letter of credit established.

5. Inter Corporate Deposits
A deposit of one company to another, usually for a period of six months, that is, as described ICD. The short-term deposits with other firms as a relatively attractive form of money in the short term regarding the return.
These deposits are generally three types:
a. Call deposits: withdraw terminate a money market account is the lender on a given date can.
b. three-month deposits: These deposits must be taken by the borrower
commitments over a lack of short-term cash
c. Six-month deposits: Normally, businesses do not make loans to deposits that time. These deposits are usually made with high quality borrowers.

6. Commercial Papers
A business can commercial paper to raise funds. This is a promissory note. The implementation of the company to the amount and / or reimburse a specific date.
7. Factoring
One factor is a financial institution that services related to the management and financing of receivables offers credit sales. Factoring provides the resources to finance receivables, and facilitates the recovery of debts.
There are 2 banks, sponsored organizations that provide services such.

a. SBI Factors and Commercial Services Ltd.
b. CANBANK factors LTD, operated since early 1997.

8. advance of working capital from commercial banks
Since not allow the above sources, the use of funds over a longer period, the business climate to seek other sources when the need for a longer period, ie up 3 years and older.

If a company wants to invest in long-term assets, it must find to fund the needs. The Company may, to some extent rely on internally generated funds. But it is sufficient in most cases, internal resources, not to support investment projects. When this happens, the company plans to reduce their investments or seek external funding. Most companies choose to take outside funding. They supplement internal financing to external financing has risen from a variety of sources.
The main sources of long-term financing can be divided roughly into:
Internal sources include:

a. Share (equity shares and preference) in capital
b. Reserves and surplus
c. Personal loans are called by the owner as a "quasi-Capital"
External sources include:

a. loan from banks, financial institutions and international organizations like the International Monetary Fund, World Bank, Asian Development Bank.
b. Notes
c. The demands of family and friends
d. Deposits Inter-enterprise
e. Asian Depository Receipts / Global Depository Receipts
f.  Commercial documents.

Funding in the short term or long term is a function of financial management. The sound and efficient management that is to raise funds and, if necessary, at very attractive prices. Fundraising either internally or externally requires professional behavior, including compliance with both legal requirements, technical and legal Companies Act, the Securities Exchange Board of India, stock exchange authorities and other tax laws imposed as Income Act, the Foreign Exchange Management Regulations, the banking law, etc.

Jun 3, 2011

What is Trend Analysis

Trend analysis is used when it is necessary to analyze the trend data presented in a series of statements from several consecutive years. The tendency of such an analysis is obtained as a percentage. Trend analysis of percentage movements in a sense, the progress up or down or regression. This method involves calculating the percentage ratio that any statement on the same point in the door in the base year.
The base year is one of the periods involved in the analysis, but as soon as is usually taken as the base year. The trend of the percentage declaration is a "tool of analysis to condense the data rupee absolute" in the comparative statements.

Merits of trend analysis:
• Trend percentages show the increase or decrease in a recognized position with the magnitude of change in percent, which is more effective than the absolute data.
• The percentages tend to facilitate effective comparative study on the financial performance of an enterprise over a period of time.

The drawbacks of the trend analysis:
• Any trend itself is not very analytical and informative.
• If the interpretation must be based on percentages and ratios are carried out in isolation and not with the absolute data from which the percentages were obtained, the findings tend to be absurd and baseless.
• The comparability of trend percentages will be affected if the accounts are prepared on a consistent basis year after year and if the price level is not constant.
• During periods of inflation, data over a longer period of time is unprecedented, if enabled, data rupeee absolute.
• There is always the danger of choosing the base year, which may not be representative of normal and typical.
• Although the percentages tend to give important information, too much importance and weight should not be placed on the percentages when a small number in the base year. In such cases, even a slight variation will be increased by the percentage change.

• There is an increase or decrease a recognized position with the magnitude of percentage changes is more effective than absolute data.
• The trend rate facilitates effective comparative study on the financial performance of a company over time.

Jun 2, 2011

What is Fund Flow Statement

Fund flow statement also referred to as statement of “source and application of funds” provides insight into the movement of funds and helps to understand the changes in the structure of assets, liabilities and equity capital. The information required for the preparation of funds flow statement is drawn from the basic financial statements such as the Balance Sheet and Profit and loss account. “Funds Flow Statement” can be prepared on total resource basis, working capital basis and cash basis. The most commonly accepted form of fund flow is the one prepared on working capital basis.

CASH FLOW - A Cash Flow Statement is a statement which shows inflows and outflows of cash and cash equivalents of an enterprise during a particular period. It provides information about cash flows, associated with the period’s operations and also about the entity’s investing and financing activities during the period.

FUND FLOW – Fund Flow Statement also referred to as the statement of “Source and Application of Funds” provides insight into the movement of funds and helps to understand the changes in the structure of assets, liabilities and equity capital., A fund flow statement is different from cash flow statement in the following ways:
i). Funds flow statement is based on the concept of working capital while cash flow statement is based on cash which is only one of the element of working capital. Thus cash flow statement provides the details of funds movements.

ii). Funds flow statement tallies the funds generated from various sources with various uses to which they are put. Cash flow statement records inflows or outflows of cash, the difference of total inflows and outflows is the net increase or decrease in cash and cash equivalents.

iii). Funds Flow statement does not contain any opening and closing balance whereas in cash flow statement opening as well as closing balances of cash and cash equivalents are given.

iv). Funds Flow statement is more relevant in estimating the firm’s ability to meet its long-term liabilities, however, cash flow statement is more relevant in estimating the firms short-term phenomena affecting the liquidity of the business.

v). The Cash Flow statement considers only the actual movement of cash whereas the funds flow statement considers the movement of funds on accrual basis.

vi). In cash flow statement cash from the operations are calculated after adjusting the increases and decreases in current assets and liabilities. In funds flow statement such changes in current items are adjusted in the changes of working capital.

vii). Cash flow statement is generally used as a tool of financial analysis which is utilized by the management for short- term financial analysis and cash planning purposes, whereas funds flow statement is useful in planning intermediate and long-term financing.

Advantages of fund flow are as follows:
  • management of various companies are able to review their cash budget with the aid of fund flow statements
  • Helps in the evaluation of alternative finance and investments plan
  • Investors are able to measure as to how the company has utilized the funds supplied by them and its financial strengths with the aid of funds statements.
  • It serves as an effective tool to the management of economic analysis.
  • It explains the relationship between the changes in the working capital and net profits.
  • Help in the planning process of a company
  • It is an effective tool in the allocation of resources
  • Helps provide explicit answers to the questions regarding liquid and solvency position of the company, distribution of dividend and whether the working capital is effectively used or not.
  • Helps the management of companies to forecast in advance the requirements of additional capital and plan its capital issue accordingly.
  • Helps in determining how the profits of a company have been invested: whether invested in fixed assets or in inventories or ploughed back.

Debentures-Kinds of Debentures

The issue of debentures by public limited companies is regulated by Companies Act 1956. Debenture is a document, which either creates a debt or acknowledges it. Debentures are issued through a prospectus. A debenture is issued by a company and is usually in the form of a certificate, which is an acknowledgement of indebtedness. They are issued under the company's seal. Debentures are one of a series issued to a number of lenders.
The date of repayment is invariably specified in the debenture. Generally debentures are issued against a charge on the assets of the company. Debentures may, however, be issued without any such charge. Debenture holders have no right to vote in the meetings of the company.
Bearer Debentures: They are registered and are payable to its bearer

Kind of Debentures:
1.Bearer Debentures: They are negotiable instruments and are transferable by delivery.
2.Registered Debentures: They are payable to the registered holder whose name appears both on debenture and in the register of debenture holders maintained by the company. Registered debentures can be transferred but have to be registered again. Registered debentures are not negotiable instruments. PI registered debenture contains a commitment to pay the principal sum and interest. It also has a description of the charge and a statement that it is issued subject to the conditions endorsed therein
3.Secured Debentures: Debentures which create a charge on the assets of the company, which may be fixed or floating, are known as secured debentures.

4.Unsecured or Naked Debentures: Debentures, which are issued without any charge on assets, are unsecured or naked debentures, The holders are like unsecured creditors and may sue the company for recovery of debt.

5.Redeemable Debentures: Normally debentures are issued on the condition that they shall be redeemed after a certain period. They can, however, be reissued after redemption under Section 121 of Companies Act 1956.

6.Perpetual Debentures: When debentures are irredeemable they are called Perpetual.

7.Convertible Debentures: If an option is given to convert debentures into equity shares at stated rate of exchange after a specified period they are called convertible debentures. In our country the convertible debentures are very popular. On conversion, the holders cease to be lenders and become owners. Debentures are usually issued in a series with a pari passu (at the same rate) clause which entitles them to be discharged rate ably though issued at different times. New series of debentures cannot rank pari passu with old series unless the old series provides so

8.New debt instruments issued by public limited companies are participating debentures, convertible debentures with options, third party convertible debentures, and convertible debentures redeemable at premium, debt equity swaps and zero coupon convertible notes.

9.Participating Debentures: They are unsecured corporate debt securities,which participate in the profits of the company. They might find investors if issued by existing dividend paying companies.

10.Convertible Debentures with Options: They are a derivative of convertible debentures with an embedded option, providing flexibility to the issuer as well as the investor to exit from the terms of the issue. The coupon rate is specified at the time of issue.

11.Third Party convertible Debentures: They are debt with a warranty allowing the investor to subscribe to the equity of a third firm at a preferential vis-à-vis the market price. Interest rate on third party convertible debentures is lower than pure debt on account of the conversion option.

12.Convertible Debentures Redeemable at a premium: Convertible debentures are issued at face value with an option entitling investors to later sell the bond to the issuer at a premium. They are basically similar to convertible debentures but embody less risk.

May 30, 2011

Functions of the Financial Manager

The important role of financial manager in modern business is as follows:
1.Provision Capital: How to create and implement programs for Provision of capital required by the Company.
2.Investor relations: the creation and maintenance of a sufficient market for company with the Securities and maintaining a sufficient connection with the investment Bankers, analysts and shareholders.
3.Short long-term financing: To the appropriate sources for the company current loans from commercial banks and other lending institutions.
4.Banking and storage: agreement with the bank, consider a given depots.

5. Credit and collections: the direct lending and collection accounts for the company, including oversight of the necessary sales financing arrangements, such as the payment of time and Leasing plans.

6. Investment: To raise money from the company as needed and get create and coordinate measures for investments in pension and other similar trust funds.
7.Insurance: Providing insurance protection as needed.
8. Planning Control: Develop, coordinate and manage an appropriate plan for monitoring the measures.
9.Reporting and Interpretation: To compare the information with business plans and standards and to report and interpret the results of operations for all Levels of management and owners of the company.

10. Evaluation and Consulting: For all segments management is responsible for policy or action on any stage
Operation of the company in achieving the objectives and effectiveness of policies, organizational structure and procedures.
11. Tax Administration: the administration of tax policy and procedures.

12. Government Reporting: monitor or coordinate the preparation of the reports from government agencies.

13. Asset Protection: Protect company assets through internal controls, internal audit and the appropriate insurance Cover.

May 29, 2011

Profit Maximization vs Wealth Maximization

Profits - It is a fundamental objective of financial management. Profit maximization is intended to improve efficiency, maintain stability and reduce losses and inefficiencies.

Benefit may be seen in both directions in this context.
1. Maximizing profits for the owner.
2. Maximization of profit for others.
1. They are generally available with efficiency and it is the test of effectiveness.But this approach has limitations as the ambiguity of the term is not clearly how he has never been defined, varies from person to person.

2. Quality of earnings - profits are generally calculated in terms of cash. Normally referred to as the official profits, but ignored some basic ideas like waste, efficiency, skill requirements of workers, employees, sales, product mix, production processes, administrative installation.

3. Moment of the time value / benefit of profits - in inflationary conditions reduce the value of the gain and thus the benefits should not extend over a longer period comparable.

4. Some economists argue that profit maximization leads to some unhealthy tendencies and harmful to society and can not use, unhealthy competition and lead to abuse of position.
Maximization of wealth - one of the traditional

Approaches to financial management by maximizing the wealth we create and accumulation of wealth, property and assets on average over a longer period of time to take care when to maximize profits, its limitations, it is run wealth maximization in the true sense of the search, this is a long-term cash flows that the profits were so it may be a

Situation where a company is losing money every year, but there are cash prizes for the severe impairment, which indirectly suggests high levels of investment in fixed capital and is the real wealth, and takes into account the time value money and it is generally accepted.

May 12, 2011

What is Employee Retention

An Organization.
One where people meet and work in harmony towards a common goal is set to achieve as an organization called. People who earn their bread together in an organization and butter and profits as an employee. The employees are the lifeblood of a company and contribute effectively to its operation and profit taking.

An organization can only survive if people seriously and they are more concerned about their personal interests.
Employee Retention?
Employee retention will maintain the various policies and practices, the staff of an organization for a longer period of time. Each organization invests time and money to groom a new joinee make him a material corporate loans and bring them to parity with current employees. The organization is completely lost when employees leave their jobs once they are well trained. Employee retention takes into account the various measures taken for an individual remains in an organization for the maximum period.

Why do employees leave?
Studies show that most employees leave the organization of constant frustration and friction with superiors or members of the team. to force in some cases, low salaries, lack of growth opportunities and motivation of an employee looking for a change. The management must strive to be best to people who are really important to the system and are known, effective employees will be retained.

It is the responsibility of supervisors and management to ensure that employees with their roles and responsibilities and work satisfaction by providing a new challenge and learning every day.

The Example, the concept of employee loyalty to understand.

Misha was a talented staff, who gave his best and he has his work within the prescribed period. His work had no mistakes and always has been as innovative and challenging. Never in someone else's work and remained away from unnecessary gossip and rumor. She avoided a walk around the job was his work very seriously and is confident that his performance has always been sensitive. Greg, his immediate boss never really liked Misha and considers its biggest threat unturned to insult and discourage workplace.He Misha. Mischa soon got tired of Greg and decided to go further.

Situation 1 - The HR does not make efforts to conserve and mixing his resignation was accepted.

Situation 2 - Human Resources responded immediately and problems that led many to think Misha talked about for a change. They tried their best to convince Misha and even appointed a new chief to make things better for them.

Situation 1 would most likely leave the organization in a dilemma. It is not easy for an employee, also gels with the system and knows how to find work. Rent to engage an employee, the form and be in a position in an organization tremendous effort and the genuine efforts made, therefore, should be to retain employees. Every problem has a solution and management, the exact reasons for the dissatisfaction of an employee to explore. employees adhere to an organization for a long time tend to know the organization better and develop a sense of connection with it. Employees who remain for a longer duration, are familiar with company policies, guidelines and rules and regulations and may therefore contribute more efficiently than people who come and go.

Employee retention techniques go a long way in motivating employees to enjoy their work and to avoid changing jobs frequently.

Apr 17, 2011

Customer Relationship Management - CRM (MBA Notes)

Each business unit will focus on the springs a long-term relationship with its customers, its stability at the flower market food today. Customer expectations are now not limited to obtaining the best products and services, they also need a face-to-face business where they want to get exactly what they want and a fast time.

Customer Relationship Management is a concept, strategy or standing to strengthen relationships with customers and simultaneously reduce costs and improve productivity and profitability of the company. CRM is an ideal system a central collection of all data sources within an organization and provides real-time atomic information to the customer. A CRM system is great and important, but it can be for small businesses and large corporations can be realized as the most important goal is to help customers effectively.

Usually there is an organization of various departments, mainly access to customer information, directly or indirectly. Many CRM system instead of the central information, reviews and makes then addressed in all departments. Consider an example of an international call center, a CRM tool, called "xyz", and must be integrated with a phone and a PC or laptop. Well, this system automatically collects customer calls. Before the Board attended the phone, the CRM system, the customer lifts details on the screen or laptop and also shows that the possibility of agreements with this particular client, the client has already purchased or ordered in the past and what the probability of purchase is the future. Not only that, it may also select what is best for all products to customers. For Finance, it's information on the current account and the accounts can, they can leave information about recent purchases by the customer. All of these data items are stored in the CRM database and are available as and when necessary. In this example, the CRM system a well-defined platform for all businesses interact with their customers and meet all their needs and desires very efficient and create a long-term relationship.

Wangling this kind of relationship with customers is not easy to manage and it depends on how systematic and flexible CRM system implemented or integrated. But once he did he is the best way to deal with customers. As the customer to the gratitude of self-satisfaction and loyalty, which translates into feeling better collaboration with suppliers and in turn, thereby increasing activity.

A CRM system is used not only to care for existing customers, but also helpful in attracting new customers. The first process starts with identifying the customer and storing all relevant data into the CRM system which is also called "Opportunity of Business. Sales and field service, and try, and the business of customers of sophistry follow up with them and convert them into a successful business.

Customer Relationship Management Strategies, a new perspective to all suppliers and customers have given to the company under an estimable relationship kept by the needs of mutual purchase and sale.

Apr 3, 2011

What is Ambush Marketing

Ambush marketing as a situation in which a company or product is the advertising value of a great event without the event by sponsoring fund drive. This is a marketing campaign, which took place at an event, but not to the payment of a fee to sponsor the event. It occurs when a company has evidence of an event as a sponsor and a rival to the room of the mind through devious means sponsor. Ambush marketing is when companies pass themselves off as official sponsors, they are not looking. Most displays are performed at major sporting events.

It is a concept that the actions of companies looking for employees with a sponsored event without paying the organizer described. or most important events afford a stamp for the exclusive and official sponsor of the event in a specific category or categories, and this exclusivity creates a problem for one or more other brands. The ambush is to highlight the impression to consumers that the thief is somehow tied to the event. Ambush marketing can some or most of the benefits of a legitimate, paid for the sponsorship to a relatively low cost.

Ambush marketing can be divided into two classes.

1. Direct ambush marketing. In 1994 FIFA World Cup MasterCard received exclusive rights to use the World Cup logo, but a competitor Sprint Communications logo used without permission. It is the direct attack, but may be protected by law.

2. Indirect Ambush Marketing. More indirect means of ambush marketing can include sponsorship of the transmission part of the event, sponsorship etc. sub-major event

It would be pertinent to consider why exactly this sponsorship as part of their marketing programs, because it will help explain the impact of ambush marketing.

Audience Awareness: When people can afford to relax their information more quickly. This allows the brand message effectively deep into the psyche of consumers.

Image: sponsorship led to the improvement of brand image by association with a high-level event.

Targeting segment: sponsorship, marketing their target consumers in an effective and relevant. So when Mercedes Benz wants to reach CEOs, can be done effectively by sponsoring a golf tournament than advertising on television.

Other options: Sometimes, companies have no other way to reach the masses through government restrictions on advertising, etc. (for example, many tobacco companies and alcohol can not apply directly).

PR: Finally, have the opportunity to sponsor high visibility and to get free PR.

Ambush marketing is defined as a marketing strategy Cast consumer's mind space for an event. What Ambush marketing is not, try something sneaky to take advantage of properties of grants without having to pay higher taxes. The decision to sponsor the marketing is really a question of whether the sponsorship, as is currently offered is really profitable.
Successful strategies for ambush feeding poorly thought incapable of sponsorship and sponsors in respect of ambush marketing to make the natural result of healthy competition and the effect of distance sponsored useful properties, not least for eradicate a successful ambush, over time, not the rate of sponsorship.

MBA without GMAT

GMAT, GRE or MAT are standardized tests that colleges for MBA enrollment in advanced courses as required. GMAT Graduate Management Admission Test is. E 'used by the Graduate Management Admission Council (GMAC), the test should be administered in three main parts: the Analytical Writing Assessment, the Quantitative section and the verbal. Students can take the GMAT, the computer as a Computer Adaptive Test (CAT).).
The following are the top accredited colleges and universities with MBA programs without GMAT requirement:

Durham Business School (UK)
- Accredited by AACSB, the Association of MBAs and EQUIS.
- 15 in Britain, 26 and 65 in Europe in the world (Economist MBA Rankings 2008).
- Put in Great Britain 13, 22 and 80 in Europe in the world (Financial Times Global MBA Ranking 2009).
- Provides distance learning MBA / MBA (Finance)
- Financial Times Top 40 Distance Learning MBA programs in the world (March 2008).

Glasgow University Business School (UK)
- It 's the fourth oldest university in the English-speaking world.
- The University of Glasgow Business School is one of only two schools in Scotland, accredited by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB).
- It is also accredited by the Association of MBAs.

Henley Business School (UK)
- Henley MBA Distance Learning is one of the best in the world, 2nd in the UK and 6th largest in the world, according to the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), January 2008.
- The MBA program is the first full-time international student and faculty quality (EIU 2008) placed at the base.
- It is the largest global provider of triple-accredited MBA program (AMBA, EQUIS, AACSB).

Hull University Business School (UK)
- Featured in the top quarter of the prestigious The Times Good University Guide 2009 rankings for business and economics.
- The quality of school teaching and learning is rated as "excellent" was to check with a score of 23/24 in QAA.
- The school received accreditation from the Foundation for Management Development EQUIS and AMBA accreditation for its MBA program.

Edinburgh Business School (UK)
- EBS is part of Heriot-Watt University - His Royal Charter granted in 1966.
- Offering Distance MBA training with the thematic priorities in the strategic planning, marketing, human resources and finance.
- EBS MBA program is listed as the largest outside the U.S. (FT 2009).
- More than 40% of Fortune 500 companies have students on its MBA program.

U. Carlos III of Madrid (Spain)
- Universidad Carlos III is one of only five schools AMBA-accredited in Spain.
- TOEFL and GMAT are not required.

Toulouse Business School (France)
- Does not require the GMAT for admission provided that applicants come from accredited institutions.
- End of the Aerospace MBA, which is a full-time of 12 months from October to September. The program is taught entirely in English.
- The Aerospace MBA program is accredited by AMBA.

Concordia University Wisconsin (USA)
- The MBA program can be examined by an independent e-learning.
- The MBA program is accredited by the International Assembly for Collegiate Business Education.
- Thesis and GMAT scores are not required.

Regis University (USA)
- Offering online MBA degree that can be completed in two years.
- No GMAT or thesis required.
- Consistently a top-Master University in the West by U.S. News and World Report ranks.


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