Dec 3, 2013

Tips To Create An Effective Professional Resume


As the job market is competitive, it has become actually hard to get a excellent job. Employers are often busy with a large quantity of resumes for a single vacancy. So, posting sufficient resume is not adequate to get a good job. You must create a professional resume to make yourself stand out among candidates and get into the eyes of the employer.

There are some valuable tips that one should keep in his mind while making a professional resume:

1) Avoid Complicating Things:   
A resume does not need any color or graphics to create sense to the employer. It should be small, crisp and should only include the main sections such as your skills, experience, education qualification etc that is necessary by the employer.

2) Avoid Mentioning Contact Information In the Header:
Various resume databases do not obtain the contact information from the header of the resume. So avoid putting the contact information in the header because if your resume selected, the employers will unable to contact you.

3) Use Standard Formats:
Resumes typically follow a standard format i.e. DOC or DOCX which is used by most of the employers as well. So be stick to these basic formats else it may point to errors.

4) Templates And Tables Should Be Avoided:
Using a standard format and avoiding any particular template makes editing easy for the employer also. Recruiters usually need to alter your resume like insert a company logo etc before transfer it to the client for the final approval.

5) Length of Resume:
The resume should neither be too long nor too short. It should be on one page or two only. Try to make it short with the key points mentioned appropriately.

6) Do not state Any Irrelevant or Outdated Work Experience:
This is actually vital; never mention any irrelevant work experience that is not linked to the job profile that you are applying for, as it may turn out to be barrier in acquiring the job even if you are well experienced.
   
7) Key Facts Should Be Mentioned At The Top:
Recruiters don't have enough time to seen the entire resume of each and every candidate. So, make sure that you show all the key facts like the relevant work experience or any type of certification at the top of the resume so that it can grab the attention of the recruiter at the very first glance.

8) Use Common Fonts With Appropriate Size:
This is really essential, as a lot of employers still prefer the resume to be in normal font and size i.e. Times New Roman with a font size of 11 or 12. So, make sure you submit your resume in standard font and size for the ease of the employer.

Always keep in mind that resume is the most vital document to get a good job in the market. If you are facing any complexity in making a professional resume, you can always take help of some professionals or online resume building app to make effective professional resume.

Distance Education- Way to fulfill dreams of Higher Education

Distance learning has always been measured a poor choice of standard schooling or college; however, it is evident that distance learning has made it feasible for various students to complete their academic dreams that aren't possible otherwise. Distance Study gives an opportunity to students to continue their education while doing their jobs or to those who fail to do a full-time course for different other reasons such as financial problems or poor health. Apart from this, there are many more benefits that make distance learning suitable and realistic program for several. Here, we have mentioned some points on why distance learning is a simple way of fulfill your dream of higher studies.

Flexibility:
The major benefit of distance learning is that you can study as well as earn in the same time. This lavishness isn't permitted in regular courses in which attendance is always a big problem with students. You can complete the syllabus in your own time and professionally balance between study time and job timings. With distance learning, you can get higher education degree such as MBA and found your job just after graduation, growing your job experience as well as increasing your work and professional knowledge.
   
Save Time and Energy:
You can save time and energy as distance learning doesn't need to commute every day. If you are based in a location where higher studies have always been a distant vision, you can also go for other professional courses like MBA correspondence or distance education. Therefore, cut your time and efforts that you can spend in more worthwhile matters such as getting practical experience in your desired field of interest.

Study at your own tempo:
There is no need to compete with class toppers and you can secretly carry your preparation and obtain marks that wouldn't have been possible with worry of daily projects and assignments. So you can study at your own pace which suitable to you. Distance learning helps you comfort of leaning as per your accordance.
   
Saves Money:
As compare to regular courses, the fees of distance learning courses make them more lucrative. A regular MBA course would cost you almost 05-10 lakhs whereas MBA distance course would be done in a few thousands. Therefore, students who aspire to pursue higher degrees for good future but are limited due to monetary constraints can take help of distance education and work towards the path of fulfilling their dreams.

Convenience:
With study material of distance courses which offered online, login anytime to read the course material. You can also submit your assignments around the clock and even communicate your queries with your virtual class fellows through video conferencing. Also, you have right to use all subject materials, topics/chapters that interests you anytime.

In nations like India/Pakistan/Bangladesh where graduation is necessary for basic jobs and where the number of applicants is more then the job positions available, continue your studies through distance learning make you skillful of better jobs and better salary.

       

Nov 2, 2013

MBA in International Business can change the life

It's the time of year when every B school admissions , programs, and a variety of other details that are the focus of the presentation is to be the best option speaks . But how many of these claims are true ? Have you ever thought about it? The post-graduate program that you choose can be a game changer for life , especially if you are planning to get into something like niche MBA in International Business MBA in food and other similar options. However, the game - changer phase is valid only if you do it in the right place . If you are not able to make the right decision , chances are that you are in the arms of School B with absolutely no profits at the end of the end.
Schools as Symbiosis Institute IBIS B and other offers coveted MBA in symbiosis known , a procedure that rigorous training , just to make sure that only those who have a genuine interest . Other schools have a simple procedure , but they offer the same quality. Well, that's a question that you may find difficult to answer. However, IBIS , with the label of the symbiosis of a high quality education is essential. Located in Pune, SIIB is its kind institute that focuses on providing specialized programs that deal with specializations like MBA in International Business and an MBA in food. In fact, IBIS has the distinction of being among the only institute for energy and environmental program. But the MBA continues to be the flagship course in International Business .

Here are 5 reasons to do the MBA IB IBIS can be a life changer:

You have access to a world-class education !
In IBIS , focus is on the faculty , teaching and technical training modules and programs . So if you are in the institution you are going as a loan manager for the sector , global challenges.

You are at the top of the rankings
Allegations of good faculty and academic training received Siib were recognized by the classification that the institution has for its teaching and school infrastructure in general. In fact, recently received the IBIS 8 best position for teaching in the business world ranking.

Your ticket to a better career
The company is not only by geography . Therefore, the future manager must be prepared accordingly. The IBIS program focuses on the transformation of a simple student manager overall skills. To the various trades in different cultures to understand to study their effects on our economy , IBIS uses a holistic approach .

Great investment !
Given the association of Symbiosis Institute IBIS has a credible reputation in the industry in which the students have successfully acquired their various programs in key positions in various industries , was founded. After all, investing , decide what your career at the end fo the MBA in International Business program .

You get a chance to be a part of the exchange program
Student exchange programs are a great way for future leaders to learn the intricacies of teamwork in the corporate sector . In IBIS , if the selected students are internationally renowned universities sent short courses and expand their understanding of the industry.

Oct 3, 2013

About Part Time MBA

Although the full-time MBA is the preferred study for most people who are considering a business education , part-time MBA method is often much more convenient.
After all, the obligation to leave a job you might like , and even to leave the region or country in which you are not to the taste of everyone , especially those with family , friends and roots in a region .

Why study an MBA part-time?
There is the need to stay in work and his way through an MBA attracts a part of the candidates to pay part-time MBA .

There are a large number of people to pay for one reason or another, are unwilling or unable , the fee in advance of a program of full-time MBA . For those who remain in the workplace is the only viable option.

Today's top business schools offering MBA courses part-time well-organized , the elders have the same qualifications as the full-time MBA .

In the modern business environment has seen an increase in interest rates , the option part looking for QA time . Because not everyone wants to be or is able to leave their secure jobs at this time , given the associated risks are clear.

Professor Susan Miller , director of MBA studies at Hull University Business School , said: " In the current climate , many people who have a job , not for the uncertainty finish their work for a qualification, who are willing , even at international professional development as recognized means holds no specific job at the end . "
To answer this , the best business schools are now very viable MBA courses part-time.
It may take after work, on weekends , during the holidays and are very high requirements on students . After all , balancing the rigors of work, family and social life to full-time are perfectly adequate for most people, so the addition of a very demanding MBA program at the top is a big challenge.

What disadvantages of part-time MBA?
Obviously, students full-time MBA have the advantage of immersion in the program , as well as constant and daily exposure to teachers and other students on the course. It also allows a little further , a few steps from the workplace for the thoughts and feelings of the students about how his career developed to evaluate further.

For part - timer networking opportunities are difficult , even if the students always get to meet, discuss , discuss business and make lasting friendships . It is obvious that these opportunities will be more problematic in the development of networks , as they would be on a full-time program , however.

Despite all the drawbacks to offer the best business schools part-time MBA courses that are just as rigorous as their academic cousins ​​full time.

The MBA is the same, you have not brought the letter and the prestige of the name of the school in touch with you , you can still learn a huge amount of information and to learn how to juggle the need for work full-time MBA and personal life.

Although networking , it will take much more effort, the benefits of a part-time MBA longer outweigh the negatives . Our recommendation is to talk to as many students as possible and how they completed the course . This type of insider information is priceless.

Oct 2, 2013

Emotions and Decision-Making Processes in Management

Group decision remains of the utmost importance for organizations to work group members , large and small , but what emotions run together and how such an emotional impact on decisions? In this research , more than 100 managers from three multinational organizations , all of which had been placed in an environment that make the decisions of high- level management , have been studied to the emotions that influence that affects the determined group dynamics and how these emotions have contributed to the overall result .

Feelings are rarely studied in relation to the decision-making group. But as a team , a variety of emotions are evident and influence decision-making . Using data from 20 simulated firms a total of 106 managers, run attend the training programs for management , current research has examined how four classes of emotions - the realization approach , resignation and antagonists - were associated with team decision-making process ( alternative generation and evaluation replacement ) and team cohesion . The results showed that over time consistently intense levels of performance that approach and antagonistic feelings were negative stand on the process of collective decision-making in context. Feelings of resignation , not the high intensity in this research were reported showed a positive relationship to team cohesion .

Emotions influence decision-making processes and the relationships between individuals: negotiator with a high degree of anger not only achieve less frequent profits, but also the impact on the willingness of partners to work together in the future. However, anger is not the only emotion that the policy may occur. Despite recent efforts to investigate the various forms of collective emotions and their influence on organizational processes , has very little empirical work on the collective emotions were carried out in relation to the decision-making team . The purpose of my study was to address some of these gaps in organizational research and investigate the extent to which emotions are making in the management team related. I examined alternative generation and alternative evaluation and team building - a process in which members of the group makes the team while enjoying teamwork are required .

The use of teams in organizations become more widespread decisions increasingly require strategic decision making team , given the high stakes . Nevertheless, the advantages and disadvantages of team decision-making must be considered. To be taken by the teams thought to beneficial for at least two reasons: the pooling of knowledge , expertise and skills and commitment of the team and its decisions (ie, team building ) . First, the sharing of knowledge , skills and know- how is essential for the quality of decisions made ​​by the teams. Secondly, it was argued that the team members have a greater tendency to support the decisions of the group if they have attended , and listened to , and strengthening the commitment to present and future decisions. These decisions are taken and accepted by all members , have a better chance of successfully implemented.

However, the advantages become disadvantages . The variety of perspectives , skills, experiences, opinions and situation should be integrated , leading to dissent , disagreements or conflicts between team members . Although the conflict itself should help the quality of decisions , it can be harmful , especially if the members of the group to engage in conflicts that will be taken personally . Members of the team are faced with uncertainty and ambiguity , which can be a source of stress . In turn , stress and autocratic leadership in a group , the highly cohesive invulnerable , a history of " ideas " (ie - bad decision ) provide that feels . The group unanimously on a realistic assessment of the preferred alternative and currently suffering a deterioration of mental efficiency , reality testing , and moral judgment.
Despite these potential drawbacks , the decision-making group is one of the most important aspects of the group's performance . The processes are usually the collection and dissemination of information , the creation and identification of policy options , the choice of these solutions through the integration of different views of the members , and the implementation of decisions .

The focus of my research is observed strategic decisions in a naturalistic decision making framework . It is characterized by ill- structured problems , uncertainty , dynamics, motion competing goals , time stress, high stakes , multiple players and organizational goals and / or standards. A strategic decision is defined as the important decision in dealing with complex and ambiguous questions and requires a significant commitment of resources the organization. The complexity and ambiguity a strategic decision is too overwhelming to handle usually for one person, the strategic issues are often run by management teams. Interestingly, most of the 20 selected self-managed teams called their decisions most frequently in the study of an arbitrator 's CEO .

Two main processes of decision-making were identified: ( a) the production of alternatives that focus more on the creative process , and (b ) the evaluation of alternatives , the decision- analytic dimension . A group method was chosen , namely the cohesion of the team , contributing to the acceptance and commitment to the decision by all team members .

The study participants were 106 managers from three multinational organizations. They were selected by their management to participate in leadership development seminars. A total of 20 nationalities were represented. Heterogeneous teams , which have been shown to make better decisions when it comes to non-routine and complex problems that arose before the seminar started . The team members work in self-managed team and acts as the Board of the company , they have to manage the business simulation . It was an important part of learning seminar in which the decision-making were investigated.

The simulation was used in this study designed to see the participants , the integration of different functions and capabilities to manage a multinational organization. It is a complex simulation , the large investment needed to deal with multiple inputs , unforeseen events, and competing groups actionable strategies. Simulations have been identified as effective and important in the development of leaders , because they . A viable and cost-effective way to create realistic management, but can not develop threatening situations The participants reported on their feelings at the beginning ( B) , medium ( M) and end (E) of each decision period (see Figure 1).

The results of my research consistently found that intense levels of performance that approach and antagonistic feelings were consistently negative to a process of group decision-making over time together . More specifically , the intense feelings of power were negatively related to the evaluation of alternatives. These results indicate that intense feelings of joy and pride ( two examples of success emotions) can contribute to the morale of the team , but not to make them more efficient and / or effective in their decisions. I observed in the simulation that some teams to stay " high" to the emotions of success showed the characteristic behaviors of complacency and over- confidence typical tendency for these emotions. But in the early stages of the simulation , in which it can be assumed that the momentum built , the intense feelings of power were positively associated with the evaluation of alternatives . Accompanied over time , the combination (ie, maximum intensity for emotion consensus group) developed from increased complexity of the task of a strong excitement , there was a negative relationship between emotions and success evaluation of alternatives .

The relationship between the intense emotions of the approach and team building, a team process was negative. Emotional approach to supporting group work, where they strengthen the connections between people . Team members feel emotions approach mobilized to move forward , and not only committed to the task, but also to work together. However, the approach can lead to emotions scattered attention , or vice versa , to avoid undue concentration and unrealistic goals . Thus, a high intensity of emotions approach to avoid goal conflicts between team members , which in turn result in a negative impact on team cohesion .

Resignation emotions were positively related to alternative production. Fear ( an example of a sense of resignation ) improves the adaptation , because it can be made ​​perceptive to useful signals from the surroundings, and less risk individuals. A low level of anxiety can be beneficial to the production of replacement , as the team will need to find new solutions and new ideas to improve their performance. The type of anxiety used in this situation, the fear of appearing less competent than their peers to be. The shame and guilt ( two emotions withdrawal) and behavioral consequences that support these conclusions . Shame leads to improvement and promotes the prevention of incompetence , guilt contributes to constructive efforts . These properties appear with the activity to generate additional alternatives to better cope with the increasing complexity of the task of decision making.

Conflicting emotions were negatively related to the evaluation of alternatives. Based on strategic decision-making literature, the dichotomy between cognitive and emotional conflict conflict on the fact that anger adversely leads to interpersonal conflict (conflict or emotional) , which in turn affects decision making. Anger inhibits review of all opposing views and decisions.

The results of this study have quite consistently shown that intense levels of emotion , regardless of their positive or negative appeared detrimental to the process of collective decision-making , additional support to the large amount of literature that considers emotion as an inhibitor rather than a facilitator of decision making. I suggest that this research began to find curvilinear relationships between the processes of emotion and decision making, it is a little scary with a lot of anxiety can not , with a bit of pride , a lot of pride can not , etc.. There is no simple dichotomy between good and bad influences affect / mood / emotion. The challenge remains for the future to study the influence of emotions on the actual results of the decision , because it is probably one of the most frequently asked questions when it comes to real consequences of this study.

Sep 24, 2013

Financing Your Studies Abroad

Studying abroad can be one of the most rewarding experiences of the career of a student must meet a number of advantages , such as learning new cultures , new people and make new contacts that you will not able to have otherwise obtained . There are some points to consider when studying abroad , however, especially when it comes to surviving the funding of travel and understand the money side away from home for a semester or more . There are some tips that will help students prepare for their international studies.
It is important that students who wish to study abroad , work as quickly as possible on a plane - most financial experts say you should start putting this plan in place as every year up to two years to advance. Try all ready to go , months before the beginning of the semester will likely lead some hiccups later, so it is important that students all the information they need and think that they are faced with obstacles so that later on they time could be avoided.

When students looking to save money to study abroad , they are usually immediately turn to pocket money using credit cards instead , which is their audit a risky business. This is not a bad thing to use credit cards because they help students build credit , but they must be aware of the interest credit card on what they choose to use the card. If they are not careful , they could end up with a card with extremely high interest rates, they make a huge mistake later could be when it 's time to pay them comes .

As students preparing to study abroad at the beginning, they must also keep in mind that the best credit card bonus is that they probably offer something that cash back on purchases of be . This will give them a little money and essentially free when it comes to international studies , helps a little.

Before they need to get on the plane and get on their way to talk to students about their financial advisor at your school to see if they can help with the costs anyway . There are often opportunities for students abroad in order to study their semester by loans or grants based on their major or what they want, when they are covered in another country. Sometimes this is not the case and this is something that students should know before you really put his heart to go abroad to study.

Also, you have insurance while studying abroad, there are several options to choose from, but I have no fault insurance used. In fact, in these cases, you only pay for what you covered and you do not need too much hard-earned money for something that can not happen can pay.

As with everything that takes place in another country, it is important that people understand the exchange rate, and preferably not only by the use of a Google currency converter . The best way to do this is to some versions of the national database of common sites and see what the sales of the local site , students are to visit. One of the most common pitfalls people fall into when they travel abroad did not bring enough money with them because they had obtained currency conversion wrong.

There are quite a few ways that students from one semester to benefit in another country , but it is important that they understand how to secure funding for the trip they made ​​the most of their time properly. Not only do they need to save money, but they must ensure that the program is covered , and they need to understand the exchange offices. Once they abandon all these

A Checklist for Studying Abroad

The desire to understand other cultures is one of the big draws to study abroad, but before you jump on a plane in search of education , conditions must be met.
  • Students must have made significant progress toward important prerequisite requirements and one year of a language.
  • A minimum average of 3.2 required . This is a cumulative grade point average if you are short , that fall , it's time to move to the next level before this chance up .
  • Those with a current average of 3.0 to 3.2 can be considered approved. They must be able to reach 3.2 before departure or have consecutive semesters with a 3.2 or higher.
The process from start to start is not a quick , going abroad , will take about 12 months, by understanding how to stop the process , you will be able to relieve stress and anxiety , where you , the excitement feel their coming adventure . Create a checklist to make sure you do not miss important parts. You want to start this year, a year in advance and work your way down as soon as possible . The fun begins as soon as all the details are worked out.
  • Talk to gather with a study abroad advisor information on the individual programs
  • Your advisor will talk about the conditions for the transfer.
  • Letter of recommendation is required to be applied , so before you is this part of the process, it is important that these letters ready .
  • Find the program that is right for you . Once you have done that, it is time to think about the associated costs , and start researching in the country you call home is for one semester. Use Internet resources or school to find other people who have studied abroad and ask for advice .
  • If you are currently on financial aid , contact your advisor to ensure that your aid will cover . If you do not currently have a grant or a scholarship , and you think you may have additional resources to do this once in a lifetime opportunity to get help from a counselor.
  • Get all your transcripts in order.
  • Apply program .
  • Apply for your passport . If a visa is required to ask.
  • Make your request for an International Student Identity ( ISIC ) card. This will help you to win when you're there. This card you can get discounts on almost all transportation and fun when you are abroad prices .
  • Familiarize yourself with the language of the host country , are beginning to understand their culture . You do not want to feel the culture shock so far from home , it is important to understand as much as possible on the land and the language in which you are currently viewing .
  • At this point you have been working on the main folds and you can start to look into what 's to come. The only thing left is to get a credit card, you may need in an emergency or perhaps simple things like find cheap textbooks online. Upon arrival , continue to study the culture and increase your ability to communicate.
  • Get a physical and immunizations and vaccinations you need. Want to have your medical records with you when you travel .
  • Make your travel arrangements.
  • Inform you of your trip if you are taking prescription drugs your doctor authorize refills your doctor. Check and ensure that all medications you might be taking , are legal.
  • Look into travel insurance, you will help in the event of loss or theft .
  • Change your address with the post office.
  • Make sure that all of your financial aid and scholarships, loans are current.
  • Buy a gift for your host family.
  • Make copies of important documents , so that a game at home and another with your advisor and to naturally bring with you.
  • Get an international cell phone.
  • Make a list of everything you need on a daily basis , so that the package is much easier and it's less likely that you will forget something important.

Studying abroad - The Middle East

Traveling in the Middle East is an incredible experience . Dubai offers some of the best 5 star hotels in the world and is a cultural center , which means that students who can not travel to meet friends from different backgrounds . Dubai is not the only country that is popular among foreign students , however , Qatar and Egypt are also gaining in popularity. This article examines why study abroad is an excellent opportunity for young travelers .
The appeal of studying in the Middle East , the chances of its range expansion of the economy. Wages in the Middle East are generally higher than in Europe , and there are careers in everything from information technology to architecture. Then there is the possibility of network such as the Middle East attracts nationalities from all over the world in a truly international countries.

In addition to being an employer of choice is Egypt , for example, a leading provider of education. True to its multicultural character study offers exchange programs in the United States , the United Kingdom, the United Arab Emirates , France , Canada , Australia and India. It offers highly competitive rates for all subjects , including some of the best MBA programs in the world.

In Egypt , a student can expect to follow in the footsteps of the former strong and powerful community after that. Egypt is home to the Sphinx , the Pyramids and the tomb of Tutankhamen - meaning that students interested in history and archeology , an abundance of artifacts have at their fingertips in Egypt.

Compare how artificial with the natural beauty of the Nile, and you have something incredible beauty! But do not think that Egypt had been the glory years . Market liberalization , trade development and political stability help Egypt an example of what can be achieved in North Africa.

In a survey of students who took studied in Egypt , came to Cairo as the top-ranked city . U.S. student Mujeeb studied there and asked him if he do it again , said: "In any case , it is an amazing cultural experience and has given me a greater perspective on the world , especially the learning the Arabic part of the history of world politics ! ".

Now that you are interested , it is time to address the concerns that students regularly watch on the trip.

Yes, it's hot. But you might be surprised to learn that it's cool to be inside buildings. So much so that the number of students recommended to bring warm clothing. Dubai and Egypt are the two Islamic states and are respected on campus. Make sure the clothes you wear is not too sparse .

In general, the clothes you wear at home are the same as those you wear in Dubai and Egypt to be .

You can use your credit card if you are in an area and it is probably the best way to pay for things . It provides protection against loss, theft and damage and is easy to carry. There will be vending machines on campus , which is very convenient. Just be sure to let your bank you are traveling before you leave.
Students who have been accepted on a full time basis will receive a sponsored visa. You may be a small fee for the visa itself and greater passport to pay the deposit . That should come to about $ 400. In addition, there may be health screening .

I hope this article has some suggestions on how to study abroad provided - not only in Dubai and Egypt - but where the interests and expertise in the subject you are studying. Wherever you look , good luck!

Sep 5, 2013

MBA Notes - Media Planning Process

The word Media came from the Latin word "Middle". Media Planning, in advertising, is a sequence of decisions involving the transmission of message to the segmented audience. Media Plan is the plan that details the usage of media in an advertising campaign including markets, costs, reach, running dates, rationales, frequency and strategies.
Steps in Development of Media Plan
Market Analysis
Every media plan starts with the market research or environmental analysis. Complete review of internal and external factors is essential to be done. Media planners try to identify answers of the following questions:
What internal and external factors may influence the media plan? 
Who are the target customers?
Where and when to focus the advertising efforts?
The target audience can be classified in different variables like age, sex, income, occupation etc. The classification of target customers helps media planner to recognize the media utilization tendency, and accordingly select the most suitable media or media mix.
Establishing Media Objective
Media objectives explain what you want the media plan to achieve. There are 5 key media objectives that a advertiser or media planner has to consider - reach, frequency, continuity, cost, and weight.
Reach - Reach refers to the number of customers that will be showing to a media at least once during a given time period.
Frequency - Average number of times an individual within target audience is uncovered to a media vehicle during a given time period.
Continuity - It indicates the pattern of advertisements in a media timetable. Continuity alternatives are as follows:
Continuous: tactic of organizing campaign evenly over a time period.
Pulsing: Strategy of running campaign progressively over a time span with intermittent increase in advertising at certain intervals, as during events or special occasions like World-Cup or New Year celebration.
Discontinuous: plan of promotion a lot only at certain intervals, and no advertising in the interim period, as in case of seasonal products.
Cost - It refers to the cost of different media
Weight - Weight refers to total advertising essential during a specific stage.
Determining Media Strategies
Media strategy is determined to consider as follows:
Media Mix - From the broad diversity of media vehicles, the advertiser can utilize one vehicle or mix appropriate vehicles.
Target Market
Scheduling - It refers the lot of advertisements, size of advertisements, and time on which advertisements to appear.
Seasonal Pulse: Seasonal goods like cold creams follow this preparation.
Steady Pulse: It is scheduling 1 ad which shown over a period of time, say 1 ad per week or 1 ad per month.
Periodic Pulse: A standard guide is followed in such scheduling, as in case of consumer strong and non durable.
Erratic Pulse: No usual pattern is followed in such scheduling.
Start-up Pulse: When to launch new product or services such scheduling is followed.
Promotional Pulse: This is for short time, only for a promotional time.
Reach and frequency
Creative Aspects - Creativity in ad campaigns decides the accomplishment of the product, but to employ this creativity firm must employ a media that supports such a strategy.
Flexibility - An effectual media strategy should be flexible.
Budget Considerations - In determining media planning and strategy money must be estimated and budget must be considered.
Media Selection - It covers two big decisions - selection of media class, and selection of media vehicle within media class.
Implementation of Media Plan
The implementation of media plan requires media buying. Time and space buying in the selected media refers Media Buying. Following are the steps in media buying:
Collection of information: Media buying requires enough information about nature of segmented audience, nature of target market, etc.
Selection of Media/Media Mix: Considering the gathering information and ad-budget, media or media mix is chosen which suits the necessities of both - target audience and advertiser.
Negotiation: Price of media is communicated to procure media at the low possible price.
Issuing Ad - copy to media: Ad-copy is issued to the media for telecast or broadcast.
Monitoring performance of Media: Advertiser has to observe whether the telecast or broadcast of ad is done correctly as decided.
Payment - It is the advertiser responsibility to make payment of media bills on time finally.
Evaluation and Follow-up
Evaluation is necessary to judge the performance of any activity. Two factors are vital in assessment of media plan:
How successful were the strategies in achieving media objectives?
Was the media plan victorious in accomplishing advertising objective?
Successful strategies help to construct confidence and serve as reference for developing media strategies in future, and failure is in detail analyzed to avoid mistakes in future.

Sep 4, 2013

MBA Notes - Advertising as Mass Communication and Communication Mix

Advertising is a form of mass communication
Off course, advertising is a form of mass communication. Advertising is a process of transmitting of information by the producer or a seller of a merchandise or service to transform or stimulate the buyer behavior to purchase a particular product or services. Advertising can be in various form of appearance such as Newspapers, magazines, internet, social media, sign, symbol, Commercials on TV or radio, poster etc. as we can say that advertising is the two way communication link between the buyer and seller.
Commercial Advertising is a paid form of a non-personal message communicated through the various media by business firms, industries, nonprofit organizations, or individuals. Advertising must be informational and persuasive and planned to motivate the buying behavior and/or influence patterns of the buyer.
Advertising industry makes mass consumption possible which is the basic ingredients of today's trendy culture. Advertising is an essential element of our culture because it reflects and attempts to modify our life styles.
Advertisers can get their audiences via TV, radio, Movies, print media, outdoor advertising, Personal Selling and the web as well. The advertising message has to reach a billion people, speaking different languages, practicing many religions. Hence, advertising has to consider mass communication.

Marketing Communication Mix
The marketing communication mix is the specific mix of advertising, sales promotion, public relation, personal selling and direct marketing a company uses to enforce its advertising and promotional objectives. Elements of the mix are blended in different quantities in a campaign.

Elements of communication mix
Marketing communications has a marketing mix. Essentials of the mix are mingling in different quantities in a advertisement campaign.  There are the elements of marketing communication mix:-
Advertising - Advertising is paid form of public presentation and promotion of goods, ideas or services by recognized sponsor.
Personal selling – Some organizations are use to with Personal presentation by the selling force for the purpose of making sales and build client relationship.
Sales promotion - Short time benefits to persuade sales or buys of a product or service.
Sponsorship - Sponsorship is about providing funds to an occasion or event, in-turn the product or company is approved for doing so.
Direct marketing - Direct communication for example telephone contact, email, postal mail, with carefully segmented  and targeted individual potential customers to obtain instant reply and cultivate lasting relationship.
E-marketing - Online marketing is also making impact to advertise the product or services, to buy space on famous web pages or being a web publisher to promotion.
Public relation - Building good relationship with the firm's a variety of publics by obtaining positive exposure, building up a good company image, and handling unfavorable rumors, stories, and events.


Aug 2, 2013

Principles of Economics

The principles covered, one thing is clear, it is the choices we make and the freedom of these decisions to make our larger economy. The issues were: trade-offs, opportunity costs, marginal thinking, incentives, fairs, markets, governments, productivity, inflation and the Phillips curve.
Tradoffs -
Each face shortages. Gregory Mankiw of Harvard University, said: "I think the nature of the economy," People make compromises every day all decisions involve trade-offs...

Opportunity costs -
Each decision involves an opportunity cost. Even simple decisions, like not going to a baseball game or at home involves opportunity costs. The opportunity cost of going to a baseball game is the best grade in the class you have received.

Think marginal -
Reflection on the board is to create a balance where it is necessary to maximize efficiency.

Incentives -
People respond to incentives. On incentives to make decisions like humans. The example of the duty-free shops is an excellent interpretation of how people respond to incentives. With the high tax detail in some areas, a weekend of tax-free shopping sponsored by the government is an incentive, something you do not normally buy buy. It is an incentive, because it happens once a year.

Trade -
Trade can make everyone better. Countries are not self-sufficient. Countries and specialize. On the other for goods and services that would otherwise be more expensive to produce resources, or as the economy grows, the need for trade.

Markets -
Markets are a good way to organize economic activity. A market is a place where people take the exchange of regulated prices. A market economy consists of many markets, were determined on the decisions of households and firms.

Government -
Governments can sometimes markets. Markets fail or markets can not allocate resources fairly. Governments intervene to regulate or impose rules. One reason markets fail to work effectively is externality. Air pollution is an example of an externality. He charged air and the impact on people's lives. Therefore, the attacks of government to regulate markets.

Productivity -
A country's standard of living depends on its ability to produce goods and services. Differences in living standards are dramatic in some countries. Income differences reflect the quality of life. Productivity is what determines the standard of living. Training improves productivity. Economically free countries to promote the production. Research and development to improve the production rate.

Inflation -
Inflation is when the value of money decreases. Prices of goods and services increased to reflect only the increase in the money supply. Since money is no longer available, shrinks the value of it. To control inflation, made the call money rate and the rate of goods and services produced should be approximately level.

Inflation and unemployment -
The money supply to stimulate the economy and reduce unemployment, but in the long run, the inflation rate increases. However, if the money supply is reduced, unemployment falls and inflation rises. Phillips curve examines the relationship between inflation and unemployment. He explained that when inflation is high, unemployment is low and inflation is low, unemployment is high. However, the Phillips curve is a controversial topic. Over the last twenty years, the curve did not work due to low unemployment and inflation at the same time.

Supply Chain Management

Supply chain management is an essential part of the strategic plan of the organization. Many factors are responsible for the increasing importance of managing the supply chain. This includes the willingness to quickly to changing customer demands, globalization of the market, making supply chains longer, shorter product life cycles and new technologies. In addition, companies are looking to create long-term partnerships with fewer suppliers to improve supply chain performance.
1. Supply chain management is a relatively new concept in business. The development of materials management or purchasing reflects its new strategic role.

2. The companies have on their technique at the base with the raw materials and finished goods inventory, changed isolate more closely with suppliers and customers. This allows companies to more quickly to changing customer requirements.

3. Several factors have an impact on the supply chain, including reducing the number of suppliers, increased competition, shorter product life cycles, technology, early intervention and joint risk or reduced.

4. A successful supply chain requires trust, long-term relationships, sharing information, assets of the organization, and choosing the right type of supply chain.

5. Managed inventory and vendor consignment are becoming more common.

6. ERP systems are a new generation of software that provides ease into a single, unified platform and database for transactions between functional areas within a company and between companies and their customers and suppliers.

7. ERP systems are an outgrowth of MRP.
8. ERP systems reduce the number of errors caused by the use of a common database to shorten the reaction time customer order processing speed and improve the overall communication within the organization.

9. For reasons of ERP failure include lack of management commitment, lack of adequate resources, lack of proper training and lack of communication.

Jul 3, 2013

Training and Development - Traditional vs Modern Training

Training is organized in a planned effort by a company to facilitate the learning of job-related training employees.

These skills include the knowledge, skills and attitudes essential for successful job performance.

The aim of training for employees is essentially mastered the knowledge, skills and behaviors, and they. Their daily activities In order to obtain a competitive advantage, a company must provide detailed training as a method of intellectual capital to create.
Intellectual capital includes:
1-Basic skills: skills required to perform work of employees
2-Advanced Skills: Use the technology to share information with other employees.
3-The understanding of the processing system, or customers.
4-Self-motivated creativity

The goal of the training is primarily to bridge the gap between the demands of work and the current skills of employees.

According to Jucius
Training is a process specific skills to do a better job.

According to Van Dersal
To inform education as a learning process or educate people so that they do well-qualified as possible to do their work, and they will fill in a position to positions of great difficulty and responsibility.

According to Edward B Flippo
Training is an act to increase the knowledge and skills of an employee for a specific job in an organization.

Traditional vs Modern view of Training
Traditional education focuses on the development of basic and advanced skills, it traditionally refers to as a process of improving the knowledge and skills to do the particular job, it is an organized set of processes by which people acquire knowledge and skills for a particular purpose.

Modern perspective of the training 
Its focuses on staff training is necessary not only to understand the service or system product development, but also to share the knowledge and use this knowledge creatively to modify a product or service. The new perspective on education in the present scenario has emerged as the training lever.

Main characteristics of leverage training includes:

1-It is linked to the business strategy.
2-Supports the competitive goals
3-Integrated into the management of the line
4-Improves the performance in terms of employment and organization
5-Use a good instructional design, the quality of education.

In the formation of the current scenario is based on the basis of how the company addressed training needs related to learning, behavior and performance improvements are being studied. Now the training performance is increasingly focused. Training improves employee performance, which ultimately improved to business results.

Process of Strategic Planning

Plan is a well thought out approach. It also specifies the exact path where a piece of work can be done. Plans are as instructions. Strategic planning means setting organizational goals and determining the course of action to achieve the objectives. A strategy is the best method to ensure optimal use of resources and to ensure that resources are used to achieve the desired maximum results.
The basic steps of strategic planning are:
 Identification of the mission and vision of the goals of the company.
Affects vision, what we want to create? It focuses on giving the collective energy of insiders and outsiders, and the idea of ​​what a real organization?

concerns of the mission with the existence of this organization with the needs of society. In other words, it is a statement of organizations exist.

The implementation of the mission must formulating objectives.

The analysis of the external environment.
External environment analysis includes social, technical, economic, political, international, and analysis of the natural environment (STEPIN). It mainly affects opportunity and threat analysis. For example, per capita income is low in India provides the demand for cheap products.

The analysis of the internal environment.
It is the strength and weakness analysis. It can also functional areas, the resources of the organization, organizational structure and stakeholders

Revision of organizational directions, if necessary
Analyze the internal and external environment is the SWOT management can crop or revise its organizational direction.

Formulation of alternative strategies.
Alternative strategies are formulated based on the options available and in accordance with organizational analysis and the environment.

The choice of the best strategy.
Best strategy is the strategy, organizational strength consistent with environmental perspectives in the best way possible. SWOT analysis is used to classify alternative strategies and select the best strategy.

The implementation of the chosen strategy.
The implementation of the selected best holistic strategy.

Strategic evaluation and control. 
Strategic evaluation and control is necessary because the best strategy to be chosen not lead to a global success.

Importance of Human Resource Management

Importance of HRM can be treated at four levels as follows:
1-Corporate level
For an effective business HRM leads to their destination, effective and efficient. HRM helps organizations follows.

a. Rent a set of skills and loyalty through effective workforce planning, recruitment, selection, placement, promotion policy and guidance.

b. Employee development by improving the skills and the right attitude of the staff through training, development, performance evaluation, etc.

c. HRM is also concerned with the optimal use of human resources.

d. HRM also ensures that the organization has a competent team and dedicated employees in the future.

Importance at professional Level 
a. HRM also leads to a better quality of life at work, enabling effective collaboration between employees by providing healthy work environment. It also contributes to the professional development of different ways that

b. Providing staff development opportunities employees, Enable healthy relationships between the teams and the division of labor properly to employees and teams.

Importance at social Level
a. HR plays an important role in society, it helps to work in order to live with pride and dignity by creating jobs which in turn gives them social and psychological satisfaction.

b. HRM also keeps the balance between work and job seekers.

Significance at National Level
HR plays a very important role in the development of the nation. Effective and proactive personnel policies lead to exploitation and efficient use of a country's natural resources, material and financial resources. Developed and qualified personnel responsible for the development of this country. When people are under-developed countries are developed as. Effective HRM stimulates economic growth, which in turn leads to the living room and maximum employment.

Core concepts of marketing and Development of Marketing concepts

Three basic concepts of marketing are the needs, wants and demands

Needs are the basic requirement of man, which contains an individual needs to survive, food, air, water, clothing and shelter. Wants to become needs when they are directed to specific objects that might satisfy the needs. People can also have strong needs for recreation, education and entertainment.

For example:

An Indian food needs, but wants Indian dishes such as rice, pulses, chapattis, vegetables, etc. kheer
A Chinese food needs, but wants Chinese food like chowmein, Manchuria, etc.
It can be concluded that wants to be made by a company.
Demands are wants for specific products backed by the purchasing power of individuals.
Product: After producing Phillip Cotler, this is the market for attention, acquisition, use or consumption and what can be offered to meet the need or might want.

Value: Customer Value refers to the difference between the services that he and the acquisition cost of the products.

Marketing Management is a conscious effort to achieve the desired target markets with exchange results. Usually organizations conduct marketing activities within the following marketing concepts, which are as follows.

 Development of marketing concepts
1-Production concept
2-Product concept
3-Sale concept
4-Concept Marketing
5-Concept to Customer
6-Societal marketing concept

Production concept:
It is one of the oldest concepts in the business. Under this approach, consumers prefer products that are widely available and inexpensive. Business leaders focused on the production generally focus on high production efficiency, low costs, and mass distribution. According to them, consumers are primarily interested in the availability and low price. This type of orientation of the company are effective in developing countries, where consumers are more interested in getting the product that its features.

For example: The local mobile phone companies in developing countries have mobile phones at a much cheaper than the branded companies and due to the fact that people in developing countries prefer to buy local phone companies price.

Product concept:
According to the concept of consumer product companies prefer products that have them. Best quality, performance and innovative feature Require managers of these organizations focus on the high quality products and improve and focus. Compared to the production concept, product design to assume that consumers are aware of the quality of products and the ability to assess the quality and performance.

In this concept, the companies did little or no research on customer feedback and competitive products. Often used for the confidence that its engineers to design outstanding products.

Sale Concept:
Under this approach, consumers and businesses, if it does not generally suffice buy enough product organizations. The organization must therefore include activities to promote sales and aggressive. The concept assumes that consumers typically show buying inertia or reluctance.

Under this approach, the company effective marketing and promotional tools to stimulate more buying. In this concept, the aim of marketing is to do more things to more people more often for sale more money to make more profit.

Marketing concept:
Marketing concept was born in 1950 and challenged all the concepts above. Instead of product-centered make and sell philosophy and moved the concept to a "customer first" and "sense and respond" philosophy. It is a marketing concept and gardening, rather than looks hunting. Its task is to find the right products for your clients, rather than finding the right customers for your products. Marketing concepts are based on four pillars of target markets, customer needs, integrated marketing and profitability based. It starts with a well-defined market, focuses on customer needs, coordinates all activities that will affect customers, and produces profits by satisfying customers.

It can be concluded that this approach focuses primarily on the implementation of its organizational objective by more effective than competitors in creating companies, providing value and superior customer communication on selected target markets.

Customer service concept:
Today, many companies are turning to marketing concept to the concept of customer. Marketing concept in the business world at customer segments, while the business concept centered on the client to the individual client. They offer separate offers, services and messages to customers individually. These companies use to gather information about each customer in past transactions, demographics, psycho-graphics, media and distribution preferences. They believe in profitable growth by capturing a larger share of spending by each customer the highest customer loyalty and customer lifetime value.

Concept of social marketing:
It focuses primarily on the social and ethical considerations into their marketing practices. According to this concept, the organization of the task to determine the needs, desires and interests of the target group and the desired satisfaction more effectively than competitors in a way that preserves and enhances the consumer and business well-being must be delivered.

Jun 23, 2013

Objectives of Human Resource Management

Objectives of human resource management can be divided into four major categories.
Social
HRM can contribute ethically and socially manner with respect to the needs and challenges of society. If an organization fails to use its resources for the benefit of society in an ethical manner, it can lead to a restriction of the Company. For example, the company may limit the choices of human resources through laws in hiring, it may limit laws that address discrimination, laws, or other safety concerns.

Organizational
The main objective of HRM is to organizational goals by allowing them to reach effective organizations. HRM is not the end but a means to help the organization achieve its goals

Functional
Functional purpose HRM transactions with contributions from the various departments in relation to their needs and effectiveness in achieving the organization's goal. The whole of resources or expertise Let wasted if HRM is unable to meet the demand of the organization.

 Individual
HRM also deals with the personal goals of the individual and personal and organizational goals can be achieved and to maximize production and achieve competitive advantages. These personal goals are important in order to obtain, retain and motivate employees. If the employee will not lead to dissatisfaction and poor performance in abrasion or low productivity.
  
The objectives of human resource management may also include-

1.To create and use a workforce capable and motivated to achieve the objectives of the basic organization.

2.To establish and maintain a solid organizational structure and desirable cooperation between all members of the organization.

3.To provide an opportunity for expression and voice in management.

4.To a fair, acceptable and effective management.

5.To ensure the integration of individuals and groups within the organization coordinating the various groups and objectives with those of society.

6.To create facilities and opportunities for individual and group development to match the growth of the organization.

7.To provide facilities and working conditions and to create a favorable atmosphere for maintaining stability and growth.

8.To strengthen and appreciate the human assets continuously by providing training and development.

9.To maintain employee morale and healthy relationships by maintaining and improving the various conditions and facilities.

10.To consider contributing to the minimization of socio-economic ills such as unemployment, underemployment, inequalities in the distribution of income and wealth and well-being of society by improving employment opportunities for women and disadvantaged sections of society, etc.

11.To identify and respond to individual and collective needs by providing adequate and equitable wages, incentives, benefits and social security measures and challenging work, prestige, recognition, security, status, etc.

12.To achieve effective utilization of human resources in achieving the objectives of the organization.

Business Negotiation

What makes the various international negotiations?
It is suggests that two general relationships influence international negotiations: the environmental context and the immediate context. The environmental context includes the environmental forces that neither negotiator controls that affect the negotiations. The immediate context includes factor, s negotiators seem to have some control.

Environmental context
Salacuse (1988) identified six factors associated with the environment, the more difficult for national negotiations international negotiations makes it: the political and legal pluralism, international business, foreign govts, bureaucracies, instability of ideology and culture.

Political and legal pluralism:
Companies that operate in different countries with different legal and political systems. It can have an impact on the organization pays taxes, labor codes or standards that must be met, and the various codes of contract law and the application level. In addition, political considerations can help or harm business negotiations in different countries at different times. For example, the open environment in the former Soviet republic in 1990 is very different from the closed environment in 1960

International Economics:
The exchange value of international currencies fluctuate naturally, and this factor is to be taken into account in the negotiations in the individual countries. What is the currency of the contract is to be made? The risk is usually greater for the party that pays in the currency of another country. The less stable currency, the greater the risk for both parties. Moreover, any change in the value of a currency significantly to the value of the agreement for both sides, a valuable for both sides alternating offer in a windfall for one and a great loss for the other

Government and foreign governments:
Countries differ in the extent that the government regulates industries and organizations. Companies from the United States are relatively free of government interference, although some industries are heavily regulated than others, and some states have more stringent environmental regulations than others. Generally trade negotiations in the United States occur without government approval. However, the government in many developing countries and communist monitors imports and joint ventures, and often a government agency has a monopoly on the treatment of foreign organizations closely.

Instability:
Companies trading in North America are used to a certain degree of stability, which is not available in many parts of the world. The instability can take many forms, including a lack of resources that Americans often wait for Trade Negotiations (paper, electricity and computers), the lack of other goods and services (food, reliable transportation, drinking water), and political instability (shots shot changes in government policy., major currency appreciation.) The challenge for the international negotiators to anticipate and accurately enough lead time to adjust their consequences. Salacuse (1988) suggests that negotiators face volatile situations should clauses in their contracts that include simply allow cancellation or neutral arbitration, consider purchasing insurance policies to secure the contract.


Ideology:
Negotiators in the United States, generally a common ideology, on the advantages of individual rights, the superiority of private investment and the importance of making a profit in the company (Salacuse 1988). Negotiators from other countries do not always share this ideology. For example, from other countries, the negotiators (eg, China, France) on the role of collective rights are considered more important than the rights of individuals and the public investment as a better allocation of resources for private investment. Ideological confrontation increases the communication challenges in the international negotiations in the broadest because the parties negotiated on the basic conflict about the importance levels.


Culture:
It is difficult when the fundamental beliefs about what is being negotiated, and how is it different. The essential role of intercultural negotiations and other international culture are mentioned. People from different cultures seem to negotiate different. In addition to people from different cultures and different basic negotiation process are to be interpreted differently. After Salacuse (1988), people in some cultures the deductive approach negotiations (they move from general to specific), while people of other cultures are more inductive she settled. Onto a series of specific questions about the field of general agreement

External stakeholders
External stakeholders such as "various persons and organizations that have an interest or stake in the outcome of the negotiations." These actors are professional associations, trade unions and messages, and association, among others. Eg to the union were negotiating with foreign companies because of the fear that domestic jobs oppose lost. International negotiators can have a lot of support and guidance of their government. by the Commercial Section of the Embassy and other business people through professional associations.

Levels of conflict
The level of conflict and the nature of the interdependence between the parties to a cross - cultural negotiation will have an impact on the negotiation process and outcomes. These very conflicts based on ethnicity, identity and geography, are difficult to solve. The conflicts in Northern Ireland, the Middle East and Sudan are just a few examples. There is historical evidence, however, that civil wars have a comprehensive agreement and institutionalized, which prohibits the use of coercion and promotes equitable distribution of resources and political power lead to greater stability requirements completed.

How To Solve Case Study

A case study is a collection of facts and data on a real or hypothetical business situation. The purpose of a case study, it is your ability to solve business problems, improve a logical framework. The issues in a case are generally not unique to a particular person, a company or an industry, and they often deal with more than one element of the strategy of retail. Sometimes the material is represented in the case of conflict. For example, two managers may agree on a strategy or there may be different interpretations of the same facts.
In all case studies, we must analyze what is presented and indicate what specific measures are best to resolve important issues. These measures should take into account the information in the case and the environment against the company.

STEPS in the resolution of a case study
The analysis has these stages:
  1. Presentation of the facts surrounding the case.
  2. Identification of key issues.
  3. List of policy options that could be taken.
  4. Evaluation of alternative courses of action.
  5. Recommendation of the best course of action.

Presentation of the facts surrounding the case
It is helpful to read a deal until you are presented with the information it contains. Replays are often an aid to understanding the facts, possible strategies, or questions that must be addressed and that was not already obvious. Used in the investigation of a case where you are a retail consultant company. While facts must be accepted as true, statements, rulings and decisions of individuals should be interviewed made in a case, especially if not supported by facts or when a person contradicts another.
During your reading of the case, you should emphasize interpret key facts, figures and diagrams, critical comments from individuals to assess the rationality of past and current decisions and prepare questions whose answers could be useful to treat the key question (s).

Identification of Key Issue (s)
The facts in a case often the central question (s) to a dealer, new possibilities of changing environment, a deterioration of the competitive position or excess inventories refer. Identify the characteristics and impact of the problem (s) and examined, using the material of the case and the text. Sometimes you need to dive deep, because the central question (s) and their properties are not immediately obvious.

Listing Alternative Courses of Action That Could Be Taken
Then, alternative measures regarding the central question (s) in the case will be listed. Consider the possibilities of action on their relevance to the company and the situation. Thus, the advertising strategy is not just to a small neighborhood stationery store for a great gift shop in a local mall. Action proposed to be taken into consideration factors such as the business category, the objectives, the customer market, the overall strategy, product, competition, regulatory restrictions, economic development, trends Plans market, financial resources, staff functions and sources.

Evaluation of alternatives
Evaluate each option, as the case data, the central question (s) and strategic concepts in the text, and the business environment. Specific criteria must be used and each option analyzed on the basis of them. Effects and risks associated with each alternative should be considered. Must not contain critical data in the event can be mentioned.

Recommendation of the best course of action
Make sure that your analysis is not only a summary of the case. Let your teacher based on how you identify key issues or problems, outline and assess alternative courses of action and reach realistic conclusions (the size of the retailer, competition, the picture, and so on into account) are criticized. You must demonstrate an understanding of the principles of strategic management and commercial cases. Be specific about what alternative more desirable that the dealer is in its current context. Remember that your goal is a process of logical reasoning are detailed. A written report must demonstrate this process.

What is Green Marketing

Does green marketing, pricing, promotion and distribution of products that do not harm the environment. Ecologist evaluate products to determine their impact on the environment and commitment to the marketing environment. Environmentally friendly products are approved and societies, the Green signal can be used in advertising and packaging.

OBJECTIVE OF GREEN MARKETING:
A) eliminating the concept of waste: waste and pollution are usually the result of inefficiency. Therefore, instead of things without waste waste management.

B) Reinvest the idea of ​​product: Consumables products can be placed in the soil after use and sustainable could be used and returned to the manufacturer.
C) make profitable Ecology consumers begin to recognize that competition in the market between companies should not harming the environment, and those who try to be to save him.

DEFINITION:
    "Green marketing involves all activities to generate and facilitate any exchange intended to satisfy human needs occurs and desires as satisfying these needs and desires, natural with minimal adverse effects on the environment"

IMPORTANCE OF GREEN MARKETING: 
  • Commercial companies perceive green marketing as an opportunity to be used to their objectives can be reached.
  • Many companies are beginning to realize that a member of the larger community they should behave in a respectful environment. Therefore, the questions will be integrated into the corporate culture of the company.
  • Government. Agencies create more regulations for hazardous waste control industry.Govt try to encourage companies and individuals to more environmentally responsible.
  • Firms marketing of environmentally friendly products and services a competitive advantage over companies that market-friendly products and services do not have environment.
GREEN marketing problems:
Ensure that marketing activities are not misleading to the industry and not to the prescribed rules is the main problem in green marketing. Green marketing claim must:

          - Clarify the benefits for the environment.
          - Explain how the environmental benefits are achieved.
          - Explain comparative differences.
          - Use only significant words and images.

Jun 3, 2013

Reasons to Segment your Markets

There are several important reasons why companies try to segment their markets carefully. These are summarized below

  1. A better match between the needs of customers: Customers' needs are different. Creating separate offers for each segment of the senses and offers customers a better solution
  2. Improved profits for the company: customers have another disposable income. They differ in how they are price sensitive. By segmenting markets, businesses can increase average prices and improve profits
  3. Better growth opportunities: market segmentation to increase sales. For example, customers can "trade up" after he is promoted to a particular product with a product launch, introduced cheap
  4. Retain more customers changing client circumstances, for example, they age, form families, to change jobs or get a promotion, change their buying habits. Marketing of products that appeal to customers at different stages of their lives ("life cycle"), can bind a business customer that otherwise competing products and brands could change
  5. Target marketing communications, companies must deliver their marketing message to a public customer in question. If the target market is too broad, there is a strong danger that go (1) lost major customers and (2) the cost of communicating with customers too high / unprofitable. For the target customer segmentation can be achieved more often and at a lower cost
  6. Gain stock market segment: If a company has a strong hand or a leader, it is unlikely that maximize profitability. Minor notes suffer from a lack of economies of scale in production and marketing, print distributors and limited space on the shelves.
Through careful targeting and segmentation, companies can often achieve competitive production and marketing costs and the first choice of customers and dealers. In other words, segmentation provides the opportunity for small businesses to compete with larger ones.

Monopolistic Competition MBA Notes


A large number of companies, product differentiation, competition on price, quality and product marketing, and businesses are free to come and go: Monopolistic competition is characterized by four factors.

A large number of companies
The large number of companies means
  • A small market share of each company.
  • The domination of one company, so that no one fixed the shares directly to the actions of other companies.
  • Agreement is impossible because there are so many companies.

Product differentiation
Product differentiation makes a product that is slightly different from that of companies competing products. As a result, there are not perfect substitutes and if the monopolistic competitive firm faces a downward-sloping demand curve.

Competition on quality, price and marketing
A monopolistically competitive firm will compete on:

Quality
A company promotes the idea that their product has better quality than their competitors' products. These attributes include the design, reliability, service for the buyer and the buyer easy access to the product.

Price
A monopolistically competitive firm, the company is fixed at both its price and its performance against a downward-sloping demand curve.

Marketing
A company uses advertising and packaging of its products known for uniqueness.

In and out
If firms in monopolistic competition earn an economic profit in the short term, new firms enter the market. This increase in supply and demand takes each company lowers the price until gaining a normal profit. If companies are short-term economic losses, some firms exit the industry. The price rises to a normal profit is earned by other companies.

Identifying Monopolistic Competition.
The ratio of four-firm concentration
Dynamic models of oligopoly: Harwood Fundamentals of Applied Economics
The concentration ratio of four companies is the percentage of the value of the share of sales of the four largest firms in a sector. A ratio of four-firm concentration exceeds 60 percent, is considered indicative of a market that is highly concentrated and dominated by a few companies of an oligopoly. Less than 40 percent ratio is considered an indication of monopolistic competition in the competitive market.

Herfindahl-Hirschman Index
The Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) is the square of the percentage (or the sum of all firms, if under age 50) are a combined market share of each company in the 50 largest firms in the market . If the HHI is greater than 1,800, the market is considered competitive. This is as a guide by the Ministry of Justice to make decisions on whether to challenge a merger used.

Limitations of concentration ratios

a. The geographic scope of the market
Concentration ratios have a national perspective on the market, but some products are in regional markets (in this case, the degree of competition may be overestimated) and others in global markets (in this case, the degree of competition could be underestimated) sold.
b. Barriers to entry and firm turnover
Concentration ratios do not take into account the presence or absence of barriers to entry.

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