Feb 1, 2011

MBA in IT- Short Definations

Essential Hardware Components
At the highest level, two things are required for computing
Hardware: The physical equipment in a computing environment such as the computer and its peripheral devices (printers, speakers, etc.)

Software: The set of instructions that operates various parts of the hardware. Also termed as “computer program
All computers have the following essential hardware components:
The devices used to give the computer data or commands are called Input devices. Includes keyboard, mouse, scanner, etc
A processor is the logic circuitry that responds to and processes the basic instructions that drive a computer.
Memory is the electronic holding place for instructions and data that your computer's microprocessor can reach quickly.
Computer storage is the holding of data in an electromagnetic form for access by a computer processor.
The devices to which the computer writes data are called Output devices
Input Devices
A mouse is a small device that a computer user pushes across a desk surface in order to point to a place on a display screen and to select one or more actions to take from that position. Keyboard
On most computers, a keyboard is the primary text input device. A keyboard on a computer is almost identical to a keyboard on a typewriter.
In computers, a joystick is a cursor control device used in computer games.
Digital Camera
A digital camera records and stores photographic images in digital form that can be fed to a computer as the impressions are recorded or stored in the camera for later loading into a computer or printer. Currently, Kodak, Canon, and several other companies make digital cameras.
A device that converts sound waves into audio signals. These could be used for sound recording as well as voice chatting through internet.
A scanner is a device that captures images from photographic prints, posters, magazine pages, and similar sources for computer editing and display.
What is a Port?
On computer and telecommunication devices, a port (noun) is generally a specific place for being physically connected to some other device, usually with a socket and plug of some kind. 
Many Types of Ports
1.    Parallel
2.    Serial
3.    SCSI
4.    USB
5.    Firewire
An interface on a computer that supports transmission of multiple bits at the same time; almost exclusively used for connecting a printer.
It is a general-purpose personal computer communications port in which 1 bit of information is transferred at a time.
A port that's faster than the serial and parallel ports but slower and harder to configure than the newer USB port. Also know as the Small Computer System Interface.
USB (Universal Serial Bus) is a plug-and-play hardware interface for peripherals such as the keyboard, mouse, joystick, scanner, printer and modem.
FireWire is simply a really fast port that lets you connect computer peripherals and consumer electronics to your computer without the need to restart.
•    Pentium
•    Celeron
•    Athlon
•    PowerPC
•    StrongARM (PDA)
•    Crusoe (Laptops)
•    SPARC (Workstations)
RAM (random access memory) is the place in a computer where the operating system,
Punch cards
A card on which data can be recorded in the form of punched holes
ROM is "built-in" computer memory containing data that normally can only be read, not written to. Hard disk
Hard disk is a computer storage device which saves and retrieves the data when required. Floppy disk
A diskette is a random access, removable data storage medium that can be used with personal computers.
In computers, tape is an external storage medium, usually both readable and writable, can store data in the form of electromagnetic charges that can be read and also erased.
A compact disc [sometimes spelled disk] (CD) is a small, portable, round medium for electronically recording, storing, and playing back audio, video, text, and other information in digital form.
DVD (digital versatile disc) is an optical disc technology that is expected to rapidly replace the CD-ROM disc (as well as the audio compact disc) over the next few years. The digital versatile disc (DVD) holds 4.7 gigabyte of information on one of its two sides, or enough for a 133-minute movie.
Classifying Memory/Storage
•    Electronic (RAM, ROM)
•    Magnetic (HD, FD, Tape), optical (CD, DVD)
•    Volatile (RAM), non-volatile (HD)
•    Direct access (RAM, HD), serial access (Tape)
•    Read/write (HD, RAM), read-only (CD)
Output Devices
•     Printer
•    Plotter
•    Speakers
•    Monitor
Modem is output as well as input device at the same time.
PC Parts
•    Monitor
•    Keyboard
•    Mouse
•    Speaker/headphone
•    Microphone
•    CPU
•    Front buttons
•    Backside ports, fan, slots, cables
Inside CPU
•    Power supply/fan & connectors
•    Motherboard
•    Bus
•    Edge connectors
•    Ports
•    Video card
•    Modem
•    Network card
•    Sound card
•    ROM
•    RAM
•    Slots
•    DIMM’s
The Processor Module
•    The slot on the motherboard
•    The housing
•    Fan
•    Heat sink
•    Pins (256?), Transistors (10 million?)

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